The study reviews the five phases of the ADDIE process in providing an overarching goal of a study. Secondly, the four phases of Developmental Based research phases were at the core of the study and integrated a research perspective that resulted in improved design principles. A relationship between the ADDIE phases, the Developmental Based Research phases and the evaluations functions is established. Information gathering uses the ADDIE systematic process, which was used to guide in reaching the objectives of the study. Data was analysed for validity and reliability using the Developmental Based Research
An e-Learning service is a valuable tool that can help school directors, teachers, and students to do various teaching and learning activities online. Such a service can improve the quality of teaching at schools. To examine the practical effect of this service, we surveyed the usage of the e-Learning system in teaching and learning activities in a chosen primary school in Saudi Arabia. The targeted group was students in grades five and six who undertook Math, Science, and English courses in the second semester of the session 2018-2019. In this paper, we develop a questionnaire to measure the satisfaction levels of the targeted students regarding the services provided by the Black Board learning management system (LMS). The main finding of this study is that there is still a gap between the e-Learning theoretical principles and the practice. Students’ recommendations helped us to overcome the difficulties encountered to improve the educational system. One of the main recommendations that we got from our students is to have lecture pictures and posters uploaded on the system before lecture time so that they can review it before class time.
Adult education and community development play vital role in manpower development, economic, politics, democracy and rural and urban development. This paper studies the role that adult education as well as community development plays in national development in Nigeria. The study suggests that government should implement several effective programmes for adult education and community development. Community development as planned and organized effort to assist individuals to acquire attitudes skills and concept required for their democratic participation in the effective solution as wide as possible. A range of community problems in an order of priority are determined by their increasing level of competence. Considering the two given above, certain variable are common in both. Consequently, community development is a process which culminates from people’s effort to change their living conditions through organized and planed programmes within the limits of their resources or external assistance.
Local government institutions of Bangladesh are conquered by the male representatives from the very beginning, as Bangladesh is a male dominated country. Generally, the women’s Participation in policy formulation and execution is neglected or denied by the existing structure of local government bodies for the long time. In this context, the aim of this study is to determine the factors that affecting on women participation in Union Parishad (UP: Lowest tier of rural local government) of Bangladesh. The study is entirely based on quantitative field survey where 250 female respondents from the rural areas of Bangladesh have been considered as sample. Independent sample t-test, validity and reliability test were done besides regression co-efficient. Through this study, it is found that the educational opportunity, economic freedom, religious values, societal norms and patriarchy are positively associated with women participations in Union Parishad. Besides that the societal as well as political perception of the respondents are also positively effects on women participation in Bangladesh. In this regard, the policy maker should address these identified factors sincerely in national policy making for ensuring the women’s participation in local government bodies.
In this article the authors report on the outcome of a mixed methods study which assessed the renewable energy literacies of adults’ in rural communities across Britain. The research team used a stratified sample survey (n=6000), interviews with householders (n=97), stakeholder interviews (n=7) and one focus group meeting to collect primary data. Data from the study highlighted a series findings: a) there is a clear disjuncture between individuals’ awareness and understanding of energy related matters and government and industry rhetoric; b) there is a public appetite for more reliable (trustworthy) information on renewable energy; c) the public is not well informed about renewable energy debates and government schemes to save energy . Responding to the findings an energy literacy matrix which can be used to plot knowledge of, against, knowledge about renewable energy sources has been developed. The literacy matrix provides a development education tool to focus adult educators’ efforts on raising awareness and understanding of how local, national and global issues affect the everyday lives of individuals and communities.