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This research work was carried out to find if Pupils’ Mathematics Self-Efficacy relate with their academic achievement in mathematics. Three purpose of study were formulated, three research questions guided the study and three hypotheses were tested. Correlational research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study was 30,705 (15,256 males and 15,449 females) primary 5 pupils in the 943 public primary schools in Rivers State. The sample size of 1535 (763 males and 772 females) pupils was drawn using a combination of multi-stage and stratified random sampling techniques. The instruments used for data collection were pupils’ mathematics self-efficacy questionnaire (PMSQ) and pupils’ annual mathematics achievement scores (PAMAS). The PMSQ was validated by 3 experts in the faculty of education Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka Anambra State. The data were analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) to answer the research questions and to test the hypotheses at 5% level of significance. The result obtained revealed a high positive significant relationship between pupils’ mathematics self-efficacy and their academic achievement in mathematics. It was recommended among others that primary school teachers should use mixed ability grouping method, relate mathematics abstract concepts to real life, and use manipulative - concrete materials during instructions to further improve pupils’ mathematics self-efficacy.
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