Original Research Article

INFLUENCE OF PLANTING DATES AND VA-MYCORRHIZA ASSOCIATION ONGROWTH, YIELD AND YIELD ATTRIBUTES OF TURMERIC

UTTAM TRIPURA, N. K. HEGDE

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 1-6

Planting dates in turmeric play a vital role in the growth and development of the crop which eventually decide the yield and quality of rhizome. In this present investigation, we studied the association effect on turmeric to find out the suitable planting dates and VA-Mycorrhiza application. Planting dates started from 2nd fortnight of April influenced the growth and yield of turmeric with or without inoculation of VA-Mycorrhiza. The growth parameters, yield and yield attributes were significantly differed at 180 days after planting in turmeric with or without inoculation of VA-Mycorrhiza. Among different planting dates, 2nd fortnight of May planted crops recorded highest growth parameters, yield and yield attributes of turmeric compared to the crops planed in the month of July. Hence, planting of turmeric during May month with inoculation of VAM can be more profitable by increasing yield and yield attributes of turmeric under northern dry zone of Karnataka.

Original Research Article

YIELD PERFORMANCE OF MUSHROOM (Pleurotus ostreatus) ON DIFFERENT TREATMENT OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE AND SAW DUST AND ITS NUTRIENT ANALYSIS

S. MAHESWARI, P. RAJARAJAN, P. MALAIYARASA PANDIAN, B. BICHU KRISHNAN

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 7-13

Pleurotus ostreatus has more economic, ecological values and medicinal properties.  Huge amounts of ligno – cellulosic agricultural crop residues by products rich in organic compounds are annually generated.  This study was conducted to compare effects of different concentration of sugarcane bagasse, saw dust and nitrogen source (wheat bran, cauliflower leaves and ammonium sulphate) on growth and bioconversion efficiency of oyster mushroom. In the present study the parameters such as days, spawn run, primordial formation, harvest days, total yield and biological efficiency were evaluated. The utmost substrate was found to be T1 (Sugarcane bagasse+ Saw dust + Wheat bran) in terms of spawn run (16 days), primordial formation (24 days), average number of fruiting bodies (116), stem length (6 cm) and cap diameter (20.5 cm). Total yield of Pleurotus ostreatus on different treatment substrates T1, T2 and T3 was found as 266.23±2.52g, 248.7±2.41g and 234.18±2.35g respectively. The biological efficiency of Pleurotus ostreatus was found high in T1 (86.28±8.51%) followed by T2 (78.41±7.80%) and T3 (74.25±7.40%).  The protein (3.80%), fat (0.008%), carbohydrate (7.61%), crude fibre (6.01%) and ash content (0.80%) found maximum in T1 than T2 and T3.

Original Research Article

QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND In vitro ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF Zanonia indica L. LEAF EXTRACTS

S. MADHURA, H. C. SHRISHAIL

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 14-26

Medicinal plants are the attracters now days for their immense therapeutic potential with minor side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the phytochemicals and anti- microbial activity of a medicinally rich plant Zanonia indica L. It is used as an important medicinal plant by traditional practitioners. Successive solvent extracts of Zanonia indica was obtained using Soxhlet extraction process. Hexane, chloroform, acetone, methanol and distilled water was used for extracting the crude compounds. Qualitative phytochemical evaluation of these extracts showed the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, terpenoids, steroids, tannins, carbohydrates, saponins, quinones, resins, proteins and glycosides. Quantitative phytochemical analysis of hexane extract, chloroform extract acetone extract, methanol extract and water extract for total alkaloids, total flavonoids, total phenols and total terpenoids using HPLC evidenced that acetone extract and methanol extracts were rich in active ingredients. Antimicrobial activities of these extracts were made against different bacterial and fungal strains. The results of antimicrobial activity showed that E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescen, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus were resistant to all tested extracts. Methanol extract showed maximum inhibition zone against S. mutans (15.6 mm), S. typhi (18.8 mm) and A. niger (15 mm). This experimental work would substantiate the traditional knowledge scientifically to use the plant for controlling several diseases.

Original Research Article

CHEMICAL CONTENT ANALYSIS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF TRADITIONAL PHILIPPINE HERBAL FORMULA (PITO-PITO)

JUDSON LOWIE T. RAMOS, KATHLIA A. DE CASTRO-CRUZ, CHIEH-LUN HSIEH, PO-WEI TSAI

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 34-52

Pito-pito is a multi-component medicinal plant preparation containing seven plant materials from the leaves of Premna odorata Blanco., Lagerstroemia speciosa Pers., Psidium guajava Linn., Mangifera indica Linn. and Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb., and seeds of Pimpinella anisum Linn. and Coriandrum sativum Linn. The objective of the study is to determine the antioxidant activity of Pito-pito. The total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin and polysaccharide, and the antixodant activity of Pito-pito extracted in seven solvents and water extract of plant material ingredients were determined. This study revealed that the water extract has the highest amount of total phenolic and polysachharide, and the acetone extract has the highest amount of total flavonoid and condensed tannin. The extract of methanol has the highest activities in DPPH free radical scavenging (IC50 = 97.78 ± 2.87 µg/mL) and FRAP assay (278.89 ± 0.70 mg Trolox / g Extract) by a relatively small margin with the water extract (IC50 = 107.02 ± 4.66 µg/mL and 264.28 ± 2.60 mg Trolox / g Extract, respectively). It was found that L. speciosa, P. guajava, and M. indica contained the highest amount phenolics and possessed the greatest antioxidant activity. Correspondingly, the activity was associated to the amount of the total phenolic. A high linear correlation between FRAP assay and the content of total phenolic was determined, with an R2 value of 0.9541 in the Pito-pito medicinal plant extract and 0.9296 in individual plant materials water extract. The extracts of Pito-pito showed antioxidant activity and exhibited correlation to the content of phenolic compounds.

Original Research Article

MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION, CHARACTER ASSOCIATION AND PATH ANALYSIS OF BITTER GOURD (Momordica charantia L.) GENOTYPES

MD. MARUFUR RAHMAN, . KAMRUNNAHAR, ABU BAKAR SIDDIQUE, MD. SHAHIDUR RASHID BHUIYAN, NAHEED ZEBA

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 53-62

External morphological study of the vegetative and reproductive parts of bitter gourd genotypes belonging to the family Cucurbitaceae found in Bangladesh was conducted in search of intraspecific characters that may be of source of better parent’s for selection. The morphological characters showed more variation were used in this study. Most of the variations were found in leaf characters, flower, ovary length, fruit characters and seed characters among the genotypes of bitter gourd. The morphological variation existing among fifteen genotypes in bitter gourd are presented. The significant positive correlation was found between yield and fruit length and fruit weight at genotypic and phenotypic level. Path co-efficient analysis indicated that fruit length, fruit weight and number of fruit per plant had direct positive effect on yield. Positive indirect effect also found by vine length, branch per vine and days to flowering on yield of bitter gourd. Hence Selection on the basis of the morphological difference will be more judicious for future hybridization program.

Original Research Article

PRODUCTIVITY, QUALITY AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BREAD WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) VARIETY AND LINES FOR THE SOUTHERN REGIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN

DILMURODOV SHERZOD DILMURODOVICH, BOYSUNOV NURZOD BEKMURODOVICH, KAYUMOV NORBOY SHAKIRJONOVICH, SHODIYEV SHERZOD SHOMILJONОVICH, ABDIMAJIDOV JALOLIDDIN RAXMATULLAEVICH

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 63-74

Today, winter bread wheat is one of the main crops in the irrigated areas of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Drought and rising temperatures as a result of global climate change in recent years, the spread of disease epidemics, low grain quality, and so on are causing a number of problems. For this reason, a number of experiments were carried out using 31 varieties of winter bread wheat from the world gene pool and locally created varieties of Grom, Gozgon, Bunyodkor, Shams, widely introduced in the irrigated areas of the Republic of Uzbekistan as standard varieties. The experiments were randomized to 3 replications, with a crop area of 31.4 m2 and a crop area of 30 m2, plant height (cm), peduncle length (cm), spike length (cm), number of grain spike, thousand grain weight (gm), test weight, g/l, protein content (%), moisture (%), gluten content (%), IDK (Gluten deformation measuring device IDK-3М), vitreousity (%) and grain yield (c/ha). Accordingly, when analyzing the productivity of the studied varieties and lines, it was found that it was 4.36 – 7.60 t/ha. Of the standard varieties, Shams yielded 6.88 t/ha, Bunyodkor 6.86 t/ha and Gozgon 6.83 t/ha. The yield of the Grom variety was 5.60 t/ha, the lowest among the standard varieties, the highest yield was observed in the KR17-FWWPYT-1597 line, 7.6 t/ha and 0.77 t/ha compared to the standard Gozgon variety. In the case of high yields, the yield was 7.3 t/ha and 0.47 t/ha in the KRBW17-6 line, 7.17 t/ha and 0.34 t/ha in the UZ15PC-58 line, and the grain quality 9 lines with higher performance than standard varieties were selected.

Original Research Article

APPLICATIONS OF Moringa oleifera Lam., Urtica dioica L., Malva sylvestris L. AND Plantago major L. CONTAINING POTASSIUM FOR RECOVERY

IGNAT IGNATOV, TEODORA POPOVA

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 93-103

The aim of the study was to show the use of Moringa oleifera Lam., Urtica dioica L., Malva sylvestris L. and Plantago major L., which contain potassium (K), in recovery from inflammations. In Bulgaria, the use of plants and herbs by doctors and pharmacists is widely available. It is part of the national culture. Regulated by the Act of Health of 2005. In the last 30 years, herbs and plants from abroad have been increasingly used.

Moringa oleifera Lam., Urtica dioica L., Malva sylvestris L. and Plantago major L. are used in inflammatory diseases of internal organs and systems. Malva Silvestris, Urtica dioica and Plantago major are distributed in Bulgaria. There are 13 species of Moringa, which are shrubs and trees. Their leaves, flowers, roots and seeds are used.

Moringa grows in Nigeria, Ghana, Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar and other countries in Africa. It also grows in the Himalayas in northwestern India.

Spectral methods NES and DNES were used for analysis of anti-inflammatory effects.

Original Research Article

SCREENING OF CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum L.) VARIETIES AGAINST Macrophomina phaseolina

ALI KAREEM AL-TAAE, HUDA HAZIM WAFI AL-TAAE AL-TAAE, SALEH AHMED EESA AL-JOBORY

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 114-120

Macrophomina phaseolina causing dry root rot (DRR) is mostly significant and widespread soilborne chickpea disease. In May, 2018, symptoms of wilt were noticed on Chickpea in Shekhan field, governorate of Ninevah, Iraq. Isolation and diagnosis results revealed that the Chickpea plants infected ‎with wilt showed the presences of Macrophomina phaseolina as potential pathogen.‎ Fungus pathogenicity in Chickpea plants was as well definite via postulates of Koch. Molecular Macrophomina documentation of isolate was pereformed via augmenting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) conserved ribosomal DNA region utilizing primers ITS1 and ITS4. ITS Whole sequences were compared for similarity and gaps sequences of the fungus which were homologous to M. phaseolina isolates in GenBank database with percentage resemblance of 99%; thus, confirming causative disease agent identity. Nucleotide ITS sequence from isolate of Iraq was as Accession No MN128590.1 was assigned‎ at GenBank. Up to best of knowledge we have, such is concidered as 1st record in Iraq of M. phaseolina on the Chickpea where the current investigation were perferomed for screening several genotypes for DRR resistance. Twelve genotypes chickpea were assessed for their susceptibility to disease of DRR due to M. phaseolina. Genotypes varied in their susceptibility to the disease under artificial inoculation. No resistant genotypes were recorded. CHAPP2 and WR-315 were moderately resistant, PCH-15, UC27, C-104 and CPS-1 were susceptible, Annigeri, JG-62, K850, L550, BJ-212 and ICC4475 were highly susceptible.

Original Research Article

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT GARLIC EXTRACTS AGAINST ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT BACTERIA

MENNA NAGY, A. H. ZAKI, AYMEN S. YASSIN, HALA S. H. SALAM, MAI RASLAN

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 121-133

The pretentious increase in antibiotic-resistance for pathogenic bacteria creates a critical risk to human health. Various extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) showed promising antibacterial qualities that can be improved using nanotechnology to overcome the barriers faced by antibiotic resistance bacteria. Different garlic extracts including Ethanol (EE), Ether (ALE), Aqueous extracts (AQE), as well as Nano-emulsion extract (ALN) were prepared and investigated using agar well diffusion method against common poultry strains (E. coli), and clinical strains including gram-positive methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and gram-negative enteric bacteria containing NDM1 resistant gene (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Citrobacter and Klebsiella pneumonia). The synthesized ALN was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Zeta sizer and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). ALE displayed the maximum inhibition zones for both poultry and clinical investigated strains except for the Enterobacter, Citrobacter and klebsiella. Different garlic extracts may be used successfully for treating resistant bacterial infections.

Original Research Article

RESOURCE-SAVING TECHNOLOGIES IN COTTON-GROWING ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY INDICATOR SYSTEMS

RASHIDOV RAHMATULLO ALOJONOVICH

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 134-140

The profitability of cotton growing in the world has remained unchanged over the past few years. This lack of change is negatively affected by global climate change, environmental stressors for cotton – excessive rainfall during planting, rising temperatures during flowering, declining soil fertility, an increase in pest and disease groups-and a lack of agrotechnology to address resource shortages [1]. In this regard, it is necessary to take measures to address these problems in the cotton industry, to increase the efficiency of the use of the resources used in cotton growing, and to introduce innovative, resource-saving technologies in the industry.

The mechanization of harvesting is important for saving costs in cotton growing. Based on the current cotton picking technology, cotton is harvested several times in the field by repeated picking. Therefore, manual cotton harvesting is not economically justified - Additionally, the rapid onset of rainy days in the autumn reduces the quality of the product, and the social side of the problem also requires farmers to mechanize the harvesting process in the short term.

 

Original Research Article

GENETIC VARIABILITY, CORRELATION AND PATH ANALYSIS FOR YIELD AND ITS COMPONENT TRAITS IN BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.) UNDER SALT STRESS

IBRAHEM A. ALMOHISEN

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 141-152

Ten varieties of barley were evaluated under two different irrigations normal (W1) and salt (W2) water. The results showed significant differences among genotypes under both stresses except single spike weight in W2. All genotypes in W1 gave high values than W2 for all traits. The heaviest genotype for 1000-grain weight and spikes weight plant-1 has been recorded in Rafha local barley. PCV and GCV across water stress were relatively higher for single spike weight and spikes weight plant-1 in both conditions and moderate for other traits. High heritability was recorded in plant height, single spike weight, 1000-grain weight and spike weight plant-1 in both irrigations. The genetic advance was relatively higher for plant height and moderate for 1000-grain weight in W1 and W2. In most cases, genotypic correlations (gr) were higher than phenotypic (Pr) in both conditions. Phenotypic correlation coefficients were less in magnitudes than gr. Path coefficient analysis showed that 1000-grain weight, number of effective tillers plant-1, spike weight, number of spikes plant-1 and plant height showed more direct positive effects with spikes weight plant-1.

Original Research Article

EFFECTS OF SOAKING WHEAT SEEDS IN SUSPENSIONS AND AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS AND FOLIAR APPLICATION OF SOME STIMULANTS ON THE GROWTH OF WHEAT PLANTS (Triticum aestivum L.) UNDER SALT-AFFECTED SOIL

E. A. M. AWAD, I. R. MOHAMED, A. M. ABD EL-HAMEED, E. A. M. ZAGHLOUL

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 153-162

Salinity stress is one of the most deleterious abiotic stress affecting the growth performance, productivity, and physiology of wheat plants. So, a field trial was implemented during the winter season of 2020/2021 aiming at assessing the influence of soaking wheat seeds in some suspensions and aqueous solutions before sowing as main plots and foliar application of some stimulants as sub-main plots on wheat plants grown on salt-affected soil. The combined influences of soaking and stimulants materials were investigated by combining four soaking treatments [control (without soaking), vermicompost suspension, spirulina algae suspension and aqueous solution of salicylic acid] and five foliar applications of stimulants [without  (control), moringa  (2.0%), licorice (2.0%), ginger (2.0%) and humate potassium (2.5 g L-1). The results showed that the highest values of chlorophyll (chl. a and chl. b), carotene contents (mg g-1 F.W), spike lengths and weights, the weight of 1000 grains and No. of grain spike-1 were realized when the wheat seeds soaked in salicylic acid solution under foliar spraying with moringa extract, while the lowest values were recorded with untreated plants (without soaking and foliar application).

Finally, it can be concluded that soaking the seeds of wheat plants grown on saline soil in salicylic acid solution before sowing and spraying it with moringa extract at different periods of its life is the best treatment that could be recommended to improve the performance and productivity of wheat grown under salinity circumstances.

Short Research Article

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND POTENTIAL SECONDARY SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION MECHANISMS OF ELECAMPANE (Inula helenium L.) ROOT EXTRACT

FERENC BUDÁN, MONICA NAN, BÉLA KOCSIS, ESZTER LACZKÓ-ZÖLD

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 86-92

Elecampane (Inula helenium L.) is a perennial plant mostly known for its high content of sesquiterpene lactones and volatile oils. These compounds can be extracted by hydrodistillation from its root. According to ethnomedicine literature they possess a strong disinfectant activity. Antibiotic resistant epidermal infections are deleterious health problems, which can lead to bloodstream infections, toxin-mediated diseases or rheumatic heart disease, etc. However elecampane root extract is capable of exerting a significant antimicrobial effect against them.

The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of elecampane root extract. The antimicrobial activity was tested against 6 species of fungi (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida cruzei, Candida parapsilosis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergilus niger) and 7 species of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, E. coli D31, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Also relevant secondary signal transduction mechanisms of action were researched upon by utilizing literature data.

The examined material was extracted by hydrodistillation from elecampane root using a Clevenger type apparatus. The antimicrobial testing was conducted using the two fold tube dilution method. For literature based study of mechanisms the research was performed in National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) as well as Web of Science database.

The results showed that the extracted mixture of sesquiterpene lactones and essential oil exhibited considerable inhibitory effects against all tested fungi and bacteria. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values ranged between 25 and >100 μg/mL. Elecampane extract's regulating effect on Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, Matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)s,  Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) underpins it's antimicrobial  properties against C. albicans, MRSA, TBC, S. pyogenes and P. aeruginosa strains.

 The antimicrobial effects of the experimental material was confirmed.  Based upon the results of the study the researchers concluded that elecampane in combinations with antibiotics and/or other drugs could increase the efficacy of existing antimicrobial therapies. Eleocampane extract could be also a usefull tool against antibiotic resistant microba and/or multi-infections.

Review Article

NON SPECIFIC LIPID TRANSFER PROTEINS: THE FAMILY WITH TWISTS AND TURNS

HABTAMU ABEBE AGISHO, SUBOOT HAIRAT

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 75-85

The non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) in plants are small, basic moderate sized gene family found in all plants excepting algae. These proteins have a tunnel-like hydrophobic cavity that help in binding non-specifically to diverse lipids. The LTPs have been shown to be expressed in most of the tissues. The mature protein is characterized by an N-terminal signal peptide that guides it to the exterior of the plasma membrane. The nsLTPs are characterized by eight-cysteine residue linked by four disulfide bonds in the protein backbone. This structure helps in providing stability for binding diverse lipid molecules non-specifically. The different members of nsLTPs are involved in diverse developmental stages along with stress responses. The major roles of this gene family members are cell wall organization, membrane stabilization, signal transduction, plant development, sexual reproduction, seed development, biotic and abiotic stresses. This review is mainly emphasizing on the diverse roles of nsLTPs reported in recent years.

Review Article

BACTERIAL CELLULOSE PRODUCTION FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTE AND ITS APPLICATIONS

SOUMYANIL MUKHERJEE, GUNJAN MUKHERJEE

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 104-113

The aerobic bacteria are used to produce cellulose which is a novel type of bacterial bio-synthetic substance. Bacterial cellulose has unique physicomechanical properties which are different from plant cellulose. Bacterial cellulose has many applications and advantages like low-cost efficiency and high-value production of cellulose. It is used in food industries, manufacturing biomedical substances, analytical instruments, and paper industries. The high content of cellulose and low lignin properties are present in sludge which is produced is the most in-expensive substrate obtained from the lignocellulosic biorefineries. This review aims to provide an overall objective, applications of bacterial cellulose in various applications, and to minimize the expenditure of the substrates which are essential for the growth of the micro-organisms in bacterial cellulose fermentation.

Mini Review Article

INSECT VECTOR OF PHYTOPLASMA

JOHNSON WAHENGBAM, A. M. RAUT, A. NAJITHA BANU

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Page 27-33

Phytoplasma are insect transmitted pathogen that cause diseases in various plant species. They are restricted to phloem, vector by phloem-feeding insect belonging to the families Cicadellidae, Fulgoridae and Psyllidae. The phytoplasmas and their insect vectors interaction involved complex and depends on vectoring abilities and the significances of infection on vectors. The pathogen enters to gut of phloem feeding insect vector passively, penetrate gut wall and infect various tissues. Successfully transmitted pathogen enters salivary glands across the barriers in salivary gland and eject with saliva. The relationship between pathogen and vector are persistent, propagative and transovarial and their association may be beneficial or deleterious. The vectoring capability lies on sex, age, genus and abiotic factor influencing vector distribution and life cycle.