Original Research Article

PRODUCTION OF PROBIOTICATED DRINKS OF HEALTHY VEGETABLE JUICES (TOMATO & SPINACH) USING Lactobacillus acidophilus AND Saccharomyces boulardii AND ITS microencapsulation

KUNWAR JAY SINGH, SUPRIYA GUPTA

Asian Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Page 40-45

This study is investigated for probiotication of tomato and spinach juices using Lactobacillus acidophilus and Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus acidophilus was added to dairy formulations and yoghurts both for its flavour and also for probiotic effect and  one of  the most commonly used  Lactobacillus species for dietary use. Probiotics have many well- established health benefits, including the ability to balance the gut, improve digestion and alleviate the uncomfortable side- effects of harsh antibiotics. Lactobacillus acidophilus and Saccharomyces boulardii  isolated on the  MRS agar plates and Yeast peptone dextrose agar media (YPD).  The viability of probiotics used before and after encapsulation was approximately 11.4- 11.6 CFU/ml or g of beads, which had an average diameter of 1.5-1.8 mm. The viability of free cells and encapsulated cells examined periodically after 1 day storage at 4ºC. High reductions of viable counts were found in free cells (1.6-5.2 logs) in both vegetable juices, which significantly higher than encapsulated cells (0.8-2.7 logs). Dairy-based matrix  used to produce a range of probiotic foods. There is great potential to deliver bacteria using non-dairy-based food matrices and to develop new innovative probiotic products.

Original Research Article

PATTERN OF RESISTANCE AND PRODUCTION OF EXTENDED SPECTRUM BETA-LACTAMASES IN Staphylococcus aureus ISOLATES IN THREE TERTIARY HEALTH INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA

ADETUNJI MUSBAU KILANI, KAYODE WILLIAM OLAIFA, OLUFEMI EZEKIEL ADELEKE

Asian Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Page 53-57

A study to investigate the pattern of resistance and production of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in Staphylococcus aureus isolates in three tertiary health institutions in Nigeria was reported. S. aureus is one of the most implicated human pathogens and has over the years been reported to be associated with several infections. The increasing resistance pattern of S. aureus to commonly used antibiotics and Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamases producing clinical strains of S. aureus were assessed by the Kirby-Bauer technique and the modified disc diffusion technique respectively. Seventy (70) positive cultures of S. aureus from Hospitalized patients in three Tertiary Health Institutions in Nigeria namely: National Orthopaedic Hospital, Lagos; University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin and, University College Hospital, Ibadan, were obtained from wounds and High Vaginal Swabs. The decline susceptibility patterns in S. aureus revealed in this study has always not been given a very serious attention. This contributes to a high prevalence of resistance among the clinical isolates and, thus, may be responsible for increased virulence and successful in-vivo survival especially in developing countries where there is extensive application and misuse of antibiotics. Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBLs) are plasmid-mediated enzymes responsible for the development of antibiotics resistance. Thirteen (18.57%) ESBLs producer observed in this study correlates with recently reported cases of high incidence of S. aureus super bug.

Original Research Article

ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PROBIOTIC MICROORGANISMS FROM THE BOVINE TRIPE

WILSON G. KARIBE, CATHERINE N. KUNYANGA, JASPER K. IMUNGI

Asian Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Page 58-65

Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer useful health effects on the body of human beings when provided in sufficient amounts. The probiotics isolated from natural foods have demonstrated the ability to inhibit the microbial growth and reduce cholesterol levels in the human body. Nevertheless, scanty research work on the activity of probiotics especially the lactobacillus strain obtained from the bovine tripe has so far been carried out. Natural foods are more preferable and acceptable in the modern society than pharmaceutically prepared food products and therefore this study was conducted to isolate probiotic organisms from a natural food for health benefits. This study also focused on obtaining the Lactobacillus strain to be consumed directly as a diet. The cultures of Lactobacillus strains were isolated and then characterised morphologically and biochemically at the species level. Results showed that isolated strain (Lactobacillus acidophilus) had the ability to remain alive and proliferate at pH 3.0 -7.0 with optimum growth pH at 4.0. In addition, all isolates tolerated 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 % bile salt concentrations. The test antibiotics sensitivity tests showed that the strains could resist streptomycin, Neomycin, penicillin and Vancomycin. However, the strains were sensitive to Erythromycin, Azithral and Chloramphenicol. The strain also reduced serum cholesterol level as far as 67.0 % which is a crucial finding. Therefore, bovine tripe is a potential source of probiotics that can be used in the development of new products that can benefit human health.

Original Research Article

HYDROTHERMAL ASSISTED Bacillus sp. AY8 PRETREATMENT ON LIGNOCELLULOSE FOR THE LIQUEFACTION AND ENHANCEMENT OF ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS

MD. AZIZUL HAQUE, DHIRENDRA NATH BARMAN, SNYGDHA RANI DAS, MD. YEASIN PRODHAN, ABU KHAYER MD. MUKTADIRUL BARI CHOWDHURY, MD. BOKHTAIR RAHMAN, MD. ATIQUL HAQUE, HAN DAE YUN

Asian Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Page 66-78

Lignocellulose liquefaction by bacterial treatment is a quite challenging task yet. The microstructural changes and liquefaction efficiency of hydrothermal associated Bacillus sp. AY8 treated lingo-cellulosic straw have been focused in this study. The straws (5%) of rice, barley, and wheat were treated at 170°C, 180°C and 190°C for 30 min in biomass digester. The optimum hydrothermal treatment conditions to complete liquefaction of rice, wheat, and barley straws with Bacillus sp. AY8 were obtained at 180°C, 190°C and 190°C for 30 min, respectively. In minimal nutrient media, the Bacillus sp. AY8 degraded aromatic dyes and lignin derivatives when those were utilised as sole carbon and energy sources by the strain. The scanning electron microscopy exhibited the porous structure of the rice straw due to the loss of lignin and other impurities. Moreover, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that the lignin-associated peaks at 1516 and 1325 cm-1 intensities were almost disappeared due to the removal of lignin wrapping on the surface of cellulose fibers of treated samples. The crystalline index of the rice straw was 78.30, 63.69, 57.16, and 36.10 on 0, 4, 6, and 8 days treatment respectively with Bacillus sp. AY8. The liquefaction of lignocelluloses was observed likely due to a combination of extracellular enzymes of Bacillus sp. AY8. The Bacillus sp. AY8 treated rice straw yielded maximum 73.5% reducing sugar after 72 h in saccharification. This is the first report that suggests hydrothermal associated bacterial pretreatment to liquefy lignocellulose that has opened a new route of biomass pretreatment.

Review Article

BIOSAFETY, BIOREGULATION, AND BIOETHICS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY- A MULTIFACETED REVIEW

LESTER WOLLIS, SHERMAN RYNER SUHAIBUN, TAPASH RUDRA, FARHAT A. AVIN

Asian Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Page 46-52

Biosafety and bioethical regulations are of utmost importance in the field of modern biotechnology, especially when the laboratory and safety issues are concerned. With the advent of new biotechnological products, we can now produce wonders as all these products speak volumes for themselves. However, underneath all these novelties there lie the potential biohazards. Therefore, to have these prodigious tools of modern biotechnology in our repertoire we must strongly focus on a sound ambiance of biosafety, bioethical environment that might protrude us to have the optimal implications of biotechnology as a whole. Moreover, we would achieve proper commercialization of these modern products if we could be able to regulate their potential to harm the community and what we call the bioregulation.