Malaria is one the major world public health problem especially, in Africa. In spite of malaria therapy progress, the therapy is threatened by the emergence of multi-drug-resistant malaria parasite. As a result, medicinal plants which are the natural sources of medicine can be used as the alternative means to treat malaria. This study is aimed at evaluating the anti-malarial activity of methanol, water and hexane extracts of R. nepalinsis leaves. The methanol, aqueous and hexane crude extracts of the leaves R. nepalinsis were prepared for phytochemical screening, oral acute toxicity and for the evaluation of anti-malarial efficacy against Plasmodium berghei in the infected Swiss albino mice. The crude extracts of the leaves of R. nepalinsis were not toxic to Swiss albino mice at the highest dose level of 5000 mg/kg body weight. The phytochemical test showed the presence of secondary metabolites (alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponin, steroids and glycosides). Thus, the plant extracts significantly prevented the loss of body weight, packed cell volume of the infected mice compared to the negative control (2% DMSO). Similarly the methanol extracts had significantly higher percent suppression (41.6, 42.4 and 44.8%) of P. berghei in mice at dose level of 200, 400 and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively than the negative control (2% DMSO). In conclusion, the leaves of R. nepalinsis was not toxic to mice at dose of 5000mg/kg to mice and it had antimalarial potentials in vivo in albino mice thus further studies are required to isolate and identify the responsible active compounds in this plant.
Bacterial cellulose is a biopolymer produced from of Gluconoacetobacter sp. RV28 has versatile application in the biomedical field. The bacterial cellulose biocompatibility, water holding capability, never dried gel, microfiber structure make it suits for scaffolds for tissue engineering, carriers for drug delivery, neuron protection, vascular grafts and wound healing. Moreover the bacterial cellulose alone itself not having any antimicrobial activity the implementation of antimicrobial agent is required for its effect. The Tridax procumbens leaf extract was known for its wound healing activity from ancient days, this idea were utilized in the present study to achieve wound healing activity. In this connection the present study represents bacterial gelimmersion in ethanol and methanol leaf extract of Tridax procumbens for 48 h and examined for its antimicrobial effect. The Tridax procumbens based bacterial cellulose showed strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive). Candida albicans (Yeast) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; E. coli (Gram-negative). Hence this Tridax procumbens based biopolymer is excellent product for wound healing activity.
Aims: Antibiotic resistance is a problem of deep scientific concern both in hospital and community settings. The present study aims to monitor the prevalence of aminoglycoside and beta-lactam antibiotics resistance of Cairo, Egypt.
Methodology and Results: A total of 210 bacterial strains were isolated from urine, wound, sputum, endotracheal tube (ETT), pus and blood, which recovered from three hospitals and Central health laboratories during four periods between May 2012 to March 2014. All the isolates were Gram negative bacilli (GNB), the most prevalent pathogen were E. coli, 88 isolates (41.90%) including E. coli–ESBL, 11 (5.23%), Klebsiella spp., 57 isolates (27.14%) including Klebsiella spp.–ESBL, 4 (1.90%), Pseudomonas spp. (17.61%), Acinetobacter spp. (8.09%), Proteus spp. (2.85%), Enterobacter spp. (1.42%) and (0.47%) for both of Citrobacter spp. and Morganella spp. The most efficient penicillin (Beta-lactam) antibiotic was Imipenem (IPM) and the most efficient cephalosporin (Beta-lactam) antibiotic was the combination between cefoperazone/sulbactam (CES), while the most efficient aminoglycoside antibiotic was Amikin (AK). The most resistant bacterial isolated strains E. coli MAM-24 and Klebsiella spp. MAM-16 were resistant to nearly all the tested antibiotics were exposed to gamma radiation to get rid of them. Gamma radiation reduced the viable count of the two resistant strains gradually. Klebsiella spp. MAM-16 strain was more resistant to gamma radiation while E. coli MAM-24 was more sensitive.
Different extracts of leaves and roots of Newbouldia laevis were screened for their phytochemical and in-vitro antibacterial properties on clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The well-in-agar diffusion technique was used to assay for the antibacterial properties and the results showed that the cold water, hot water, cold ethanol and soxhlet extracts of both parts of the plant at 200 mg/ml concentration inhibited the growth of all test organisms. The soxhlet extract had a more significant inhibition on E. coli. Also, the soxhlet extracts had the lowest Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) ranging 25 – 30 mg/ml while the cold water extracts had the highest MIC ranging 80 – 115 mg/ml. The phytochemical components obtained from the leaf extracts are phenols and glycosides while the root extracts contained phenols, glycoside and tannins. Some of these active components may have elicited the antibacterial activity.
Study on the use of electron-ion technology with a view to the inactivation of microorganisms, e.g., a byproduct of ozone gas, have been further developed in response to the need to suppress any microflora in fermentation processes in the microbiological industry, as well as with the development methods of storing vegetables and food products in the presence of ozone disinfection of municipal wastewater. The question of ozone destruction of microorganisms of various taxonomic groups covered extensively in the literature. Until recently, in connection with the use of ozone for disinfection of drinking water the majority of works were devoted to study ozone effects on pathogen microorganisms.