Original Research Article

CHITINASE PRODUCING ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA FROM Calotropis gigantea: A PROMISING PERSPECTIVE OF BIOPESTICIDE

M. SUGANTHI, G. ABIRAMI, M. THENMOZHI, M. JAYANTHI, P. SENTHILKUMAR

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 22, Issue 1-2, Page 1-8

Bacterial endophytes from medicinal plants plays an important role in biotic and abiotic stress protection. In usual agricultural practice, chemical pesticides are applied to manage pest incidence but repeated spraying over a long period leads to accumulation of undesirable pesticide residues, toxicity hazards to consumers and environmental pollution. By considering the current scenario, discovery and development of environment friendly biopesticides is need of the hour. Nowadays, bacterial chitinase gained importance in agricultural field due to its chitin degrading potential. In this view, present study was initiated to isolate & screen the chitinolytic endophytic bacteria from the medicinal plant, Calotropis gigantea. A total of 38 endophytic bacteria were isolated, only 2 strains (CGL-9 and CGL-12) showed potent chitinolytic activity.  Further, chitinase enzyme was purified from CGL-12 strain using gel-filtration chromatography and separated using SDS-PAGE. To explore the isolation of endophytic bacterial strains for novel metabolites, present study was initiated as first report of chitinase producing endophytic bacteria from C. gigantea which further leads to the identification of new biopesticide for effective management of pests/diseases.

Original Research Article

INVESTIGATION THE PROTEIN PATTERN OF LEAVES AND ROOTS OF BARHI AND KHALAS DATE PALM (Phoenix dactylifera L.) CULTIVARS PROPAGATED BY OFFSHOOTS AND TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES

DHIA AHMED TAAIN, MOHAMMED A. H. AL-NAJJAR, NADA A. EL-QATRANI

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 22, Issue 1-2, Page 9-17

The present study was conducted to investigate the protein pattern of leaves and roots of Barhi and Khalas date palm cultivars propagated by offshoots and tissue culture plants and grown in one of the private orchards in Ktaban region in Basrah governorate, Iraq. Results of the protein pattern showed that protein bundles on polyacrylamide gel were differed by their molecular weights, the number of protein bundles ranged from 6 to 8 according to the female cultivar, propagation method and plant part used.Leaves and roots of Barhipropagated by offshoots and tissue culture techniques showed the same site and molecular weight for the first protein bundle 220.000 KDa and for the second protein bundle 222.976 KDa. The cluster analysis of the two cultivars propagated by offshoots and tissue culture techniques depending on the molecular weights of the protein bundles showed two main groups with the degree of difference between them amounting to (7.5%), the first main group included Barhipropagated by offshoots and tissue culture techniques, for both leaves and roots. Whereas Khalas propagated by offshoots and tissue culture techniques, for both leaves and roots grouped in the second main group.

Original Research Article

VARIABILITY ASSESSMENT FOR SOME MORPHO-YIELD TRAITS AMONG ELITECHICKPEA (Cicer arientinum L.) GERMPLASM

MUHAMMAD TARIQ MAHMOOD, MUHAMMAD AKHTAR, KAISER LATIF, MUSHTAQ AHMAD, KASHIF RASHID

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 22, Issue 1-2, Page 34-41

Intensity of selection, unintended ways of domestication and natural changes increase the frequency of deleterious alleles, impart genetic drift and reduce diversity in plant genetic resources. Existence of genetic variability for different morphological traits among genetic material is highly valuable for survival of a species. We addressed this need in chickpea, an important pulse legume, by investigating the elite chickpea germplasm under the agro-climatic conditions of Gram Breeding Research Station, Kallurkot, Punjab, Pakistan during rabi 2019-20. Fifty elite chickpea germplasm entries along with two standard check varieties were studied under tri-replicate randomized complete block design. Data were subjected to D2 statistics, principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Results revealed wide dispersion of data for range, standard deviation and coefficient of variation indicating the presence significant variability among the germplasm entries. Principal component analysis revealed that first two components extracted higher Eigen values with significant contributions in creation of genetic variation. PCA also revealed that number of pods, root length, 100 seed weight and yield kg ha-1 exhibited higher positive loadings in construction of PC1 and PC2.Cluster analysis distributed the germplasm entries into four distinguished clusters. Ward’s dendrogram constructed on the basis of Euclidean distance showed that the members of cluster-III and IV were most diverse in performance of different studied traits. Mean performance of different traits in cluster analysis also showed higher values for number of pods, root length, 100 seed weight and yield kg ha-1 were found in cluster-III. Therefore, the members of cluster-III (GP-01937, GP-17215, GP-16929 and Punjab-2008) possess the best genetic constitution of yield related traits and may be preferred while making selections for chickpea genetic improvement program.

Original Research Article

CHANGES IN GROWTH CHARACTERS OF TWO CUCURBITS INOCULATED WITH MYCORRHIZA AND AUGMENTED WITH POULTRY MANURE UNDER SEA SALT STRESS

ABDULNABI ABDULAMEER MATROOD, OKON GODWIN OKON, M. A. AL WAELI, MUHAMMAD SAQLAIN ZAHEER

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 22, Issue 1-2, Page 42-57

This study evaluated the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Rhizophagus irregularis and Glomus geosporum inoculation on the growth parameters and photosynthetic pigments of Cucurbita maxima and Telfairia occidentalis planted in saline soil enriched with poultry manure (PM). Saline soil and salt water were collected from Ibeno, while non-saline soil was obtained from Etinan, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. The experiment was set up in triplicates using a complete block design (CBD). Saline soil used had an electrical conductivity (EC) of 6.70 dS/m, while the garden soil had an EC of 0.29 dS/m. Saline soil treatment significantly (p=0.05) reduced percentage germination, shoot length, petiole length, internode length and leaf area. Saline soil treatment significantly (p=0.05) reduced total photosynthetic pigments of the test plants. Inoculation with AMF alone or together with PM increased the growth parameters in the two test plants both in saline and non-saline treatments. The results of this work have shown AMF and PM synergy can enhance the ability of the test plants to resist salt stress through some morphological and physiological changes as well as improved vigour through extensive network of the mycorrhizal roots which increases nutrient uptake.

Original Research Article

EFFECT OF MANGANESE AND CHROMIUM TOXICITY ON GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS OF MAIZE

FIRZA SHAFIQUE, QURBAN ALI, MUHAMMAD ZAFAR SALEEM, TASEER YASRAB BHATTI, ANNAM ZIKREA, . SAIFULLAH, SOHAIL AKHTER, ARIF MALIK

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 22, Issue 1-2, Page 58-64

Most of the wastes are originated from industries; these wastes include heavy metals, organic and non metallic ions. Soil pollution becomes a coMon issue due to anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals such as lead, chromium, manganese and cadmium are coMon environmental pollutants in those areas where anthropogenic pressure is high. Accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural areas effects crop growth and activity of soil organisms. Heavy metals affect metabolic activities of plants and spread due to the air, water and soil pollution. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of Mn and Cr on growth related traits of maize genotype white corn and to investigate that either maize genotype is more tolerant or more sensitive varieties for metal stress. Study was conducted in physiology lab in IMBB, the University of Lahore during suMer season. Mn and Cr (0, 0.25M, 0.50M) were applied on white corn separately and in combined form and data were collected at different growth stages. Analysis of variance indicated that there was significant difference among 9 different treatments for all parameters except fresh stem weight and fresh root weight and tukey’s test indicated that high toxic affect was observed under  treatment 0.5M MnCl2+0.5M CrCl3  and less toxic affect was observed under  treatment 0.25M MnCl2 + 0.5M CrCl3. But in the case of photosynthetic pigments treatment 0.5M CrCl3 and treatment 0.25M MnCl2+0.25M CrCl3 highly affected but treatment 0.25M MnCl2 and treatment 0.25M CrCl3 were less affected. Therefore maize genotype may be used for phytoremediation in future because it showed resistance against Cr and Mn stress.

Original Research Article

EFFICACY OF NANOEMULSIONS OF PEPPERMINT AND CARAWAY OILS ON QUALITY OF "CANINO" APRICOT FRUITS UNDER COLD STORAGE

MAHMOUD G. ABD EL-GAWAD, T. F. A. EL-MOGHAZY

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 22, Issue 1-2, Page 65-83

Apricot (Prunus armeniaca, L.) is a low chilling cultivar spreading in many tropical and subtropical areas. During storage, "Canino" Apricot fruits are exposed to different levels of microbial decay, by a pathogenic fungus. Natural plant extracts as essential oils, among the numerous alternatives, are catching the attention of researchers worldwide, due to their biodegradability. Thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of nanoemulsions of essential oils extracted from peppermint and caraway fruits in the laboratory on improving quality and extending storage life of "Canino" Apricot fruits under cold storage in 2018 and 2019 seasons. The fruits were immersed in water (control treatment), peppermint oil at (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1) % and caraway oil at (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1) %, all solutions containing Tween-80 0.05% (v/v). After immersing for 2 min in treatments, fruits were air dried for half hour at room temperature, then stored for 28 days at 0°C and 90–95% R.H. and assessed weekly to determine the changes in fruit quality characteristics during cold storage.Results showed that, all of tested nanoemulsions of essential oils application significantly decreased weight loss, decay percentage and increased fruits storage period. Moreover, essential oils, positively, affected postharvest quality properties including fruit firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, vitamin C, total soluble sugars, total phenols and respiration rate. It was observed that nanoemulsions of essential oil from peppermint gave the best efficacy on weight loss, decay and firmness, while nanoemulsions of essential oil from caraway gave the best efficacy on total soluble solids, total sugars, total acidity, vitamin C, total phenols and respiration rate of treated fruits during cold storage compared to control.

Original Research Article

PHYLOGENETIC DIVERSITY OF A NATURAL POPULATION OF Colletotrichum SPP. ISOLATED FROM DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES IN MOROCCO

M. A. EL ALAOUI, S. MSAIRI, H. EL KAISSOUMI, M. CHLIYEH, K. SELMAOUI, R. BENKIRANE, A. OUAZZANI TOUHAMI, A. DOUIRA

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 22, Issue 1-2, Page 84-94

The great morphological similarities within the Colletotrichum genus and the lack of precision of classical identification methods have made the use of molecular methods mandatory. Despite the great diversity of species within the Colletotrichum genus, very few morphological characters are expressed. Morphological examination of the isolates of Colletotrichum lupini and Colletotrichum  acutatum isolated from the olive trees and strawberry allowed to observe colonies of identical appearance and colors, cylindrical conidia, spindle-shaped of different sizes. The studied isolates of Colletotrichum were identified by sequencing the ITS region which includes the ITS1, ITS2 regions and the 5,8S gene. Analysis with the BLAST tool of the obtained sequences with other sequences from GenBank, showed more than 95% of similarities of the OCol1, OCol2, OCol3, OCol4 and FCollu3 isolates with Colletotrichum lupini and of the OColA isolate with Colletotrichum acutatum. The result of the phylogeny of the five isolates resulting from this study made it possible to group these accessions into two groups, a group containing four Moroccan isolates and a second group containing the other isolates from the different countries with a Moroccan isolate (accession number: MN064849), the phylogenetic proximity of the latter to other isolates from GenBank can be explained by the presence of multiple point mutations that are common in this group.

Original Research Article

EFFECT OF SOIL MOISTURE AND SPRAYING WITH IBA IN SOME GROWTH PARAMETERS OF LUPINNS PLANT (Lupinus albus L.)

ALAA HUSSEIN ALI, REHAN NASHWAN ABDULRAHMAN, MAHA AZAD HAMED

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 22, Issue 1-2, Page 95-102

An experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the Department of Biology / College of Science / University Mosul, which included the cultivation of Lupinus albus L in clay mix soil Mud, with plants exposed to three levels of field capacity (35, 55, and 75%). As well as treating plants with three concentrations of growth regulator Indole Butyric acid IBA which is (0.0, 25, 50) mg / L, To see the effect of those factors on growth and some Physiological traits of Lupine. The results of greenhouse experiment were analyzed by using a completely randomized design (.C.R.D) as a factorial experiment, The results showed that the plants treated with IBA growth regulator were superior in all traits Studied plant height, shoot dry weight, Root dry weight, leaves number / plant, relative water content at (18.4,14.3, 36.5 and 37.5%) respectively compared to plants without treatment, as noted there was a significant decrease in the above traits when the humidity decreased from 75 to 55 And 35%) of the field capacity.

Original Research Article

REDUCING THE INCIDENCE OF ONION DOWNY MILDEW DISEASE USING BIO-FORMULATION OF Pseudomonas fluorescens, LIMONENE AND ACETYL SALICYLIC ACID

AHMED ALI ABD-ELBAKY, GABER ATTIA ABO-ZAID, HODAABD EL-FATAH MOSTAFA AHMED, SALEH MOHAMED MATAR, MUHAMMAD AHMAD ABDEL-GAYED

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 22, Issue 1-2, Page 103-120

Formulated Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate JY8, limonene (L) and acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) were evaluated individually or in combinations for their ability to decrease onion downy mildew disease severity under greenhouse and open field conditions. The foliar applications of formulated P. fluorescens JY8, limonene and acetyl salicylic acid were used at the rate of 0.25%, 0.5% and 4 mM, respectively. On the other hand, the recommended fungicide, Acrobat MZ 69% WP was utilized at the rate of 0.25%. In addition, two genes-encoding enzymes, chalcone synthase and chalcone isomarease (CHS and CHI), in flavonoids biosynthesis pathway in Allium cepa were detected at the functional and transcriptional level (mRNA level) in onion tissues under different treatments. The obtained results showed that the foliar spray with recommended fungicide was the most effective treatment to decrease onion downy mildew disease severity under greenhouse and open field conditions followed by combination of limonene and acetyl salicylic acid (L+ASA), and limonene (L) alone. All treatments containing P. fluorescens JY8 gave highly yield of onion bulbs except treatment with combination (JY8+L+ASA), which was the least effective treatment. Electrophoretic pattern of PCR products for detection of CHS and CHI encoding-genes demonstrated an induction of CHS gene expression at a main transcriptional band of ≈ 420 bp but detection of CHI gene expression was observed at main two transcriptional bands of ≈ 340 and 970 bp. The higher expression of CHS gene was found in treatment of ASA but in case of CHI gene the higher expression was found in treatments of JY8, ASA, JY8+ASA and L+ASA in comparison with other treatments and untreated control. In conclusion, treatments with JY8 and ASA induced encoded polyphenol synthetic genes in onion tissues and these genes might play an important role in defense reaction towards infection of downy mildew disease. But treatment with limonene (L) reduced disease severity of onion downy mildew through its effect as antifungal material.

Original Research Article

ECOFRIENDLY GREEN SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM ROOT EXTRACT OF Echinops kebericho AND THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST HUMAN PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

SUBOOT HAIRAT, HABTAMU ABEBE, AWAZ HAIRAT, HABDOLO ESATU

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 22, Issue 1-2, Page 121-135

The present study was performed for the rapid and simple production of silver nanoparticles from the aqueous root extract of Echinops kebericho. The root extract showed both the reducing as well as capping ability. The major compounds responsible for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles were analyzed using FTIR. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using different techniques including UV–Visible spectrometer and TEM. TEM studies revealed nanoparticles with an average size of 34 nm. UV–Visible spectrometer produced a peak in the range of 420–435 nm. Antimicrobial studies with silver nanoparticles suggested observable antibacterial activity against both Escherichia coli (gram negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram positive) bacteria. A significant increase in flavonoid and phenolic compounds was observed upon an increase in the plant extract. Antioxidant activity using DPPH showed a reduction of DPPH by plant extract. The overall result suggests the rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles in less than 15 minutes. Further, the absence of any chemical in the synthesis of the nanoparticles makes them non–toxic, eco–friendly and an alternative to conventional physical/chemical methods.

Original Research Article

EFFECT OF SALT STRESS AND NANO SIO2ON GROWTH, FLOWERING AND ACTIVE COMPONENTS IN Tagete erecta L.

MALAK A. REDEEF, DURAID K. A. AL-TAEY, BADAA R. H. AL-ATTABI

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 22, Issue 1-2, Page 152-158

The present experiment was conducted in Horticulture department, Faculty of Agriculture, AL-Qasim Green University during autumn 2020-2019. The marigold seedlings was planted on 25/9/2019 in plastic pots with sized of 7 kg. The experiment was carried out according to (RCBD) as a split plot design system with three replicates. Saline water  W2 (10dsm-1)  decrease the percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and protein and carbohydrates in flowers with high concentration of sodium in the leaves, on the other hand saline water led to increase some active components in flower (Phenols and flavonoids). The fertilizers combinations led to an increase of the phosphorus and potassium contents, while the spraying of silicon has led to an increase in nitrogen, phosphorus, protein and carbohydrates contents in and total flavonoids in Flower.

Short Research Article

NICKEL DISPERSION IN SOIL AND ITS EFFECTS ON AGRICULTURAL CULTURE IN ELBASANI TOWN, ALBANIA

ANILA JANÇE, ADMIR JANÇE, VALENTIN BOGOEV

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 22, Issue 1-2, Page 18-24

Through this scientific work we have tried to provide data on the quantitative presence of heavy metals in the soil composition for the Elbasani region. The presence of heavy metals especially when they appear above the allowed limit cause soil pollution and inevitably affects the cultivars that grow on it. To identify their presence, we have analyzed soil samples belonging to the Elbasan area, one of the cities with the highest agricultural models productivity in the country but also the most polluted as a result of industrialization.

The purpose of this scientific paper is to identify the link that exists between chemical pollution of soil and agricultural crops grown on soils located at Elbasani. For the realization of this goal soil samples were taken during the month of October-November 2020.

We emphasize the fact of selection as a study area that of Elbasan, as recently has been the subject of study of many authors precisely for the reason of labeling an area with considerable pollution of air, water and soil, mainly of bacteriological but also chemical nature. We think that this phenomenon is dedicated to the abusive activity to the detriment of nature of the heavy industries operating in this town as well as the indiscriminate use of chemical and organic fertilizers by farmers.

Soil samples weighing about 1 kg were taken by drilling with a rotary probe to a depth of 15-25 cm. After sampling they are stored in sterile plastic containers until further processing in the laboratory using the FAAS method.

Based on the results obtained from data processing we consist of a presence of chemical soil pollution caused mainly by the Nickel (Ni) which is presented at levels about four times higher than the standard values set by the Albanian State but also the EU Regulation.

Review Article

A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND VISUALISATION OF RESEARCH TRENDS IN CITRUS PSOROSIS VIRUS

. ANU

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 22, Issue 1-2, Page 25-33

Psorosis is a viral infection on citrus plants, caused by the virus CPsV (Citrus Psorosis Virus).  Unlike other dangerous citrus viruses, CPsV affects the leaves, and bark. This plant disease is mainly transmitted by grafting process. This bibliometric analysis had been conducted to understand the active authors, organizations, journals, and countries involved in the research in the subject of “Psorosis CPsV”. All published articles related to “Psorosis” from “Scopus”, were analyzed using the VOS viewer to develop analysis tables and visualization maps. This article had set the objective to consolidate the literature regarding the Psorosis and also to find out the trends related to the same. Journal of Plant Pathology, Plant Pathology, Journal of General Virology and Journal of Biotechnology are the top productive journals in this research subject. The most active countries are Argentina and Netherlands. Institut De Biologie Moléculaire Des Plantes Du Cnrs is the most active organization with the highest publications. University of Florida, IFAS Citrus Research and Education Center is the highly productive organization in this research domain, with the highest number of citations and the highest average citation. The most active authors are Garcia M.L., Grau o, Barthe G., Brlansky R.H. and  Fayad A.

Review Article

CHALLENGES AND MANAGEMENT OF WHEAT UNDER GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

SUBOOT HAIRAT, HABTAMU ABEBE AGISHO, MEHVASH ZAKI

PLANT CELL BIOTECHNOLOGY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Volume 22, Issue 1-2, Page 136-151

To feed the rising population the food production will have to be increased by upto 50% by 2050. Global warming induced climate change is expected to adversely affect crop productivity, especially wheat. At present, wheat contributes to 20% of calorie intake globally. With every degree rise in atmospheric temperature, studies suggest a 6% decrease in wheat production. Although huge germplasm of wheat and its wild relatives are available in germplasm banks throughout the world, the majority remains uncharacterized. A thorough study of the heat stress induced morpho-physiological and molecular changes in wheat will help in screening, identification and combating the heat stress associated yield decrease in wheat in near future. The possible strategies for combating heat stress induced yield loss in wheat include regulation of enzymes involved in photosynthesis, selection of stay green phenotype, cooler canopy temperature, deeper roots, rapid ground cover and selection of thermo-tolerant genotypes based on transcriptomics and proteomics studies in combination with the transgenic approach. An increased emphasis on wheat breeding programs revolving around the identification of thermo-tolerant genotypes of wheat will instill food security in near future under climate change conditions. In this review, we have laid emphasis on the global warming induced challenges on wheat production, the already reported studies on wheat genotypes characterization in response to high temperature stress and the strategies for improvement including recent advances in molecular biology.