Main Article Content
The objective of the current work is to identify the mineralogical composition of the sand fraction of wadi El-Natroun Depression soils in order to evaluate the genesis and degree of homogeneity of soils of the study area.
Landsat ETM+ image (2018) and digital elevation model (DEM) were used in Arc 10.8 software to produce the geomorphic map of wadi El-Natroun area. The landscapes include four units i.e table land, wadi terraces, wadi depression and alluvial plain. Fifteen soil profiles were selected to represent the main geomorphic units. Soil samples have been collected for mineralogical analysis.
The obtained results indicate that the mineralogical composition of the sand fraction consists of light and heavy minerals. The light minerals are the major component and mainly dominated by quartz which constitutes more than 90%. Normal quartz grains with homogenous straight extinction are common indication acidic plutonic parent rocks (mainly granitic rocks).
The other members of light fraction are feldspars (orthoclase and plagioclase series), mica (muscovite) and few calcite. The heavy-minerals are composed of opaque and non-opaque minerals. Opaque minerals are generally the major heavy fractions constituent in all the examined soils. These minerals are essentially composed of iron oxide minerals (e.g. magnetite, illimanite and hematite). The ultra stable minerals (zircon, rutile and tourmaline) mainly dominate the non-opaque minerals followed by igneous minerals (amphiboles, pyroxenes and epidotes). However, the metamorphic minerals (granite, kyanite, staurolite, sillimanite, and andalusite) are detector in considerable portions. This suggests that the studied soils are still young, poorly developed and immature from pedological point of view.
The heavy minerals distribution show that Wadi El-Natroun area is receiving sediments derived from mixture of two important provenances, the first is dominated by sedimentary rocks, and the second provenance is dominated by igneous and metamorphic.
Said R. The geology of Egypt, published for the Egyptian central petroleum corporation conco. Hurghada Inc. by Balkema. A.R, Roterdam. Netherland; 1990.
Hendricks F, Luger P, Kalleribach H, Schoerer JH. Stratigraphical and sedimentological framework of the kharga sinn el kaddal (western and southern part of the upper Nile Basin ) Western Desert, Berliner Geowise. Abb,(A). 1984;50:117-151, Berlin.
Ashmawy SA. Pedological studies bearing on genesis, morphological and classification of soils of Wadi El-Natrum depression.ph. D. Thesis, fac. of Agric. Zagazig univ, Egypt; 2003.
EL-Sheikh AF. Hydrology of thearea North and West of Wadi EL-Natroun M, Sc. Theris, Fac. Of Sci Minufiya Univ. Egypt; 2000.
CONOCO: Geological map of Egypt (1:50000) NH36NWCAIRO, Egypt; 1987.
Abdel Aal. SI, EL-Demerdashe S, Shawky ME, Kasem Y. Soils of the western desert depression, A.R.E .Z: mineralogy of the sand fractions and its bearing in the soil genesis and formation. Desert Inst. Bull. ARE. 1977;27:17.
Hassona HH. Pedological evaluation of the soils of EL –Kharga Oasis based on the mineralogical composition of the sand fraction. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ. 1999;24(b):3167-3177.
Abdel Khalek AA. Using remote sensing, Techniques and geographic information system for soil mapping in some agricultural expansion areas of Egypt. Ph. D. Fac. of Agric. El-Azhar Univ. Cairo, Egypt; 2015.
EL-Shazly MM, Rabie F, EL-Gundy AM. Genesis of some soils in south west Egypt. J. Soil. Sci. 1994;3H(4):403-423.
Dobos E, Michell E, Baumgandner MF, Biehl L, Helt T. Use of Combined digital elevation model and satellite radiometric data for regional soil mapping . Geoderma. 2002;97:367-391.
Burt. Soil laboratory Methods. Soil Survey investigation report No.42 version 4.0 November 2004; 2004.
Brewer R. Fabric and mineralogy analysis. John Wiley and Sons, New York; 1964.
Keer PF. Optical mineralogy. MC Graw-Hill-book company, Inc, New York, USA; 1962.
Milner HB. Sedimentary petrology. George Allen and Unwin Ltd. Museum street. London , U.K,V. and 11; 1962.
UNSCEAR. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation. Report to General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes. Vol. I. UnitedNations, NewYork; 2000.
Hammad MA. Gensis of the soils of the Western Mediterranean Coast of U.A.R. Ph. D. Thesis, Fac. Agric. Ain Shams Univ, U. A.R.; 1968.
Mitchell WA. Soil composents. Johne, Giesking, New York. 1975;(2):449-480.
Folk RL. Petrology of sedimentary Rock. Sylabus. Hamphill, s publishing company, Austin. Texas, USA.; 1968.
Barshed I. Chemistry of Soil Development In chemistry of the soil. F. Bear . Ed (1964) 2 nd edition, Reinhold pub. Crop, New York); 1964.
Abd El- Razik SA. Origin, mode of formation and uniformity of some soils in the north western coost of Egypt. Egypt. J. of App. Sci. 2005;20(7):377-383.