Main Article Content
Drought is one of the biggest obstacles facing the cultivation and production of the sesame crop, especially in areas where there is shortage of water or unequal rain. An investigation was done to assess the effect of deficit irrigation on agro-morphological, yield traits and stress tolerance indices of eight sesame genotypes and their twenty-eight (F1) crosses. The parents selected for a half-diallel crosses were unique and diverse. The experiment was conducted during the summer season, 2017 and 2018 at Field Crops Research Institute, ARC, Giza, Egypt. Deficit irrigation was induced by preventing two irrigations, at initial of flowering and before maturity; while normal irrigation applied as recommended. Nine stress tolerance indices were deeply estimated as selection criteria for identification of drought tolerant genotypes under moderate level of drought stress (Stress Intensity SI=0.25). Data revealed that irrigation regimes affected all studied traits significantly. Genotypes and interaction between irrigation regimes x genotypes were highly significant for all morphological, yield and seed chemical composition traits. Among the parents, P5(N.A.604), P6(Shandweel 3) and P4(Um Shagera) and the crosses, G16(P2XP3), G35(P6XP8), G27(P4XP5), G36(P7XP8), G10(P1XP3) and G26(P3XP8) were obtained the highest seed yield. According to drought tolerance indices rank average, the parents, P4(Um Shagera), P7(B21-3) and P5(N.A.604); and the F1, G22(P3XP4), G16(P2XP3), G34(P6XP7), G23(P3XP5), G35(P6XP8) and G36(P7XP8) were the most drought tolerant genotypes performed will under both stress and non-stress conditions, with minimum reduction in seed yield under stress condition. In addition, the parents P4(Um Shagera), P7(B21-3), and P1(N.A.373); and the F1 G28(P4XP6), G34(P6XP7), G22(P3XP4), G23(P3XP5), G14(P1XP7) and G25(P3XP7) scored the highest yield stability index and relative stress index. So, the drought tolerant parents were recommended for further breeding program; also, selection should be focused on F1 progenies that performed well under both stress and non-stress conditions in the coming segregating generations to select drought tolerant lines.
Faostat database. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2021. Available:http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/QC/visualize
Najeeb Ullah U, Mirza MY, Jilani G, Mubashir AK, Zhou WJ. Sesame. In: Gupta S. (eds) Technological Innovations in Major World Oil Crops, Springer, New York, NY. 2012;1. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-0356-2_5
Golbashy M, Ebrahimi M, Khavari KS, Choukan R. Evaluation of drought tolerance of some corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids in Iran. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 2010;5:2714-2719.
Witcombe JR, Hollington PA, Howarth CJ, Reader S, Steele KA. Breeding for abiotic stresses for sustainable agriculture, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 2007;363:703-716.
Almeida SM, Gonçalves DSJA, Enciso J, Sharma V, Jifon J. Yield components as indicators of drought tolerance of sugarcane. Sci. Agric. 2008;65:620-627.
Islam F, Gill RA, Ali B, Farooq MA, Xu L, Najeeb U, Zhou W. Sesame. In Breeding Oilseed Crop for Sustainable Production: Opportunities and Constraints (Gupta, S.K, ed.). 2016;135–147. Cambridge, MA: Academic Press.
Boureima S, Eyletters M, Diouf M, Diop TA, Van Damme P. Sensitivity of seed germination and seedling radicle growth to drought stress in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Res. J. Environ. Sci. 2011;5:557–564.
Sun J, Rao Y, Le M, Yan T, Yan X, Zhou H. Effects of drought stress on sesame growth and yield characteristics and comprehensive evaluation of drought tolerance. Chin. J. Oil Crop Sci. 2010;32: 525–533.
Dossa K, Donghua Li, Rong Zhou, Jingyin Yu, Linhai Wang, Yanxin Zhang, Jun You, Aili Liu, Marie A. Mmadi, Daniel Fonceka, Diaga Diouf, Ndiaga Ciss, Xin Wei, Xiurong Zhang. The genetic basis of drought tolerance in the high oil crop (Sesamum indicum L.). Plant Biotechnology Journal. 2019;17:1788–1803. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13100
Tantawy MM, Ouda SA, Khalil FA. Irrigation optimization for different sesame varieties grown under water stress conditions. Journal Applied Sciences Researcher. 2007;3(1):7–12.
Couch A, Gloaguen RM, Langham DR, Hochmuth GJ, Bennett JM, Rowland DL. Non-dehiscent sesame (Sesamum indicum L.): Its unique production potential and expansion into the southeastern USA, Journal of Crop Improvement. 2017;31:(2):101-172. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/15427528.2017.1280575
Langham DR. Phenology of sesame. In Issues in New Crops and New Uses, edited by J. Janick, and A. Whipkey. Alexandria, VA: ASHS Press. 2007;144–82.
Oplinger E, Putnam D, Kaminski AK, Hanson C, Oelke E, Schulte E, Doll JD. Sesame. In Alternative Field Crops Manual. Department of Agronomy, University of Wisconsin Cooperative or Extension Service, Madison. 2007;WI 53706. Accessed May 10, 2021 Available:https://hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/afcm/sesame.html
Gholamhoseini M. Evaluation of sesame genotypes for agronomic traits and stress indices grown under different irrigation treatments. Agronomy Journal. 2020;112:1794–1804. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/agj2.20167
Abebe T, Belay G, Tadesse T, Keneni G. Selection efficiency of yield-based drought tolerance indices to identify superior sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] genotypes under two-contrasting environments. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 2020;15(3):379-392.
Pour-Aboughadareh A, Mohammadi R, Etminan A, Shooshtari L, Maleki-Tabrizi N, Poczai P. Effects of drought stress on some agronomic and morpho-physiological traits in durum wheat genotypes. Sustainability. 2020;12:5610. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su12145610
Shahrokhi M, Khorasani S. Kh., Ebrahimi A. Evaluation of drought tolerance indices for screening some of super sweet maize (Zea mays L. var. saccharata) Inbred Lines. AGRIVITA Journal of Agricultural Science. 2020;42(3):435-448. DOI:https://doi.org/10.17503/agrivita.v42i3.2574
Talebi R, Fayaz F, Naji AM. Effective selection criteria for assessing drought stress tolerance in durum wheat (Triticum durum desf.). General and Applied Plant Physiology. 2009;35(1-2):64-74.
Moradi H, Akbari GA, Khavari, Kh. S, Ramshini HA. Evaluation of drought tolerance in corn (Zea mays L.) new hybrids with using stress tolerance indices. European Journal of Sustainable Development. 2012;1(3):543-560.
Fernandez GCJ. Effective selection criteria for assessing plant stress tolerance. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Adaptation of Vegetables and other Food Crops in Temperature and Water Stress, August 13-16, 1992, Shanhua, Taiwan. 1992;257-270.
Hassanzadeh M, Asghari A, Jamaati-e-Somarin, Sh, Saeidi M, Zabihi-e-Mahmoodabad R, Hokmalipour S. Effect of water deficit on drought tolerance indices of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes in Moghan region. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2009a;3(1):116-121.
Kermani SG, Saeidi, Gh, Sabzalian MR. Investigation of water stress tolerance in some sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes using tolerance and sensitivity indices. Journal of Crop Production and Processing. 2019;9(2):173-186.
Gomez KN, Gomez AA. Statistical procedures for agricultural research. John Wiley and Sons, Ins. New York, 2nd Ed.; 1984.
SAS Institute Inc. SAS® 9.4 Statements: Reference. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.SAS Campus Drive, Cary, North Carolina 27513; 2013.
Steel RGD, Torrie JH, Dickey DA. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. 3rd Edition. New York, McGraw-Hill. 1997;352-358.
Rosielle AA, Hamblin J. Theoretical aspects of selection for yield in stress and non-stress environment. Crop Science. 1981;21:943–946. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1981.0011183X002100060002x
Bidinger FR, Mahalakshmi V, Rao GD. Assessment of drought resistance in pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke). II. Estimation of genotype response to stress. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 1987;38:49-59.
Fischer RA, Maurer R. Drought resistance in spring wheat cultivars: I. Seed yield responses. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 1978;29:897-912.
Gavuzzi P, Rizza F, Palumbo M, Campaline RG, Ricciardi GL, Borghi B. Evaluation of field and laboratory predictors of drought and heat tolerance in winter cereals. Can. J. Plant Sci. 1997;77: 523-531.
Bouslama M, Schapaugh WT. Stress tolerance in soybean. Part I: Evaluation of three screening techniques for heat and drought tolerance. Crop Science. 1984;24:933-937.
Fischer RA, Wood T. Drought resistance in spring wheat cultivars: III. Yield association with morphological traits. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 1979;30:1001-1020.
Pour‐Aboughadareh A, Yousefian M, Moradkhani H, Moghaddam M, Vahed PP, Siddique KHM. iPASTIC: An online toolkit to estimate plant abiotic stress indices. Applications in Plant Sciences. 2019;7(7): e11278. DOI:https://doi:10.1002/aps3.11278
Ebrahimian E, Seyyedi SM, Bybordi A, Damalas CA. Seed yield and oil quality of sunflower, safflower, and sesame under different levels of irrigation water availability. Agricultural Water Management. 2019;218:149-157. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2019.03.031
Amani M, Golkar P, Mohammadi-Nejad G. Evaluation of drought tolerance in different genotypes of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). International Journal of Recent Scientific Research. 2012;3(4): 226 -230.
Hassanzadeh M, Ebadi A, Panahyan-e-Kivi M, Jamaati-e-Somarin, Sh, Saeidi M, Ghlipouri A. Investigation of water stress on yield and yield components of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) in Moghan region. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2009b;3(2):239-244.
Gholinezhad E, Darvishzadeh R. Investigation the drought tolerance of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) local landraces based on drought stress tolerance indices in different levels of irrigation and mycorrhizae. Journal of Crop Breeding. 2018;10(26):185-194. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.29252/jcb.10.26.185
Anter AS, Ashraf AA. Evaluation performance of new sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) lines under normal and drought conditions. Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research. 2018;7(4):1411-1418.
Gharib‐Eshghi A, Mozafari J, Azizov I. Genetic diversity among sesame genotypes under drought stress condition by drought implementation. Agricultural Communications. 2016;4(2):1‐6.
Shiranirad AH, Abbasian A. Evaluation of drought tolerance in rapeseed genotypes under nonstress and drought stress conditions. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici. 2011;39(2): 164-171.
Golestani M, Pakniyat H. Evaluation of traits related to drought stress in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes. Journal of Asian Scientific Research. 2015;5(9):465-472.
You J, Zhang Y, Liu A. Transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of drought-tolerant and susceptible sesame genotypes in response to drought stress. BMC Plant Biol. 2019;19:267. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1186/s12870-019-1880-1
Mohammadi R, Armion M, Kahrizi D, Amri A. Efficiency of screening techniques for evaluating durum wheat genotypes under mild drought conditions, International Journal of Plant Production. 2010;4(1):11-24. DOI:https://dx.doi.org/10.22069/ijpp.2012.677