Main Article Content
A field experiment was conducted during the fall season of 2020 on the field of Agriculture collage / Field Crops Department - Wasit University, to determine the role of using different irrigation methods under the conservation agriculture system on reducing water consumption and improving the efficiency of water use for mung bean crop (Vigna radiate L.). The depth of water irrigation and date irrigations were selected depending on the depletion of soil moisture and depth of the root. The results showed that the actual water consumption of mung bean crop varied according to the irrigation method. The highest water consumption was recorded in the treatment of surface irrigation during the season with 372.66 mm season-1. While the sprinkler irrigation treatment recorded 312 mm season-1 while the lowest water consumption was in the drip irrigation treatments with 228.8 mm season-1. The surface irrigation treatment recorded the lowest efficiency in water use (0.67 kg m-3), while the drip irrigation treatment recorded the highest efficiency in water use (0.84 kg m-3). Wheat residue as mulch zero tillage (MZT) treatment recorded the highest efficiency of water use of crop (0.77 kg m-3), while the zero tillage treatment (ZT) recorded the lowest efficiency of water use (0.62 kg m-3). Surface irrigation treatment achieved the highest growth indicators such as plant height, number of branches and leaf area index, while the sprinkler irrigation treatment showed the highest content of chlorophyll. The treatments of mulching with wheat residues outperformed the other treatments in most growth characteristics such as plant height, leaf area index and chlorophyll content, which were reflected in achieving the highest biological yield (9.30 tons ha-1).
AlTaey DKA. Alleviation of salinity effects by poultry manure and gibberellin application on growth and peroxidase activity in pepper. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechno-logy. 2017;2(4):1851-1862.
Hussain AJ, AL-Taey DK. Study of the effect of selenium and SiO2 addition on some growth parameters of Rocket (Eruca sativa Mill.) undher water stress. Plant Archive. 2020;20(Supplement 1):3594-3598.
Ali NM, Altaey DKA, Altaee NH. The Impact of Selenium, Nano (SiO2) and organic fertilization on growth and yield of potato Solanum tuberosum L. under salt stress conditions. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 2021;735:012042, Al-Tawaha ARMA. Al-Tawaha, Sirajuddin SN, McNeil D, Othman YA, Al-Rawashdeh IM, Amanullah, Imran, Qaisi AM, Jahan N, Shah MA, Khalid S, Sami R, Rauf A, Thangadurai D, Sangeetha J, Fahad S, Youssef RA, Al-Taisan WA, Al-Taey DKA. Ecology and adaptation of legumes crops. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2020;492:012085.
Mung bean Management Guide; 2010.
Ali, N. Sh. Fertilizers and their applications. Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. University of Baghdad - College of Agriculture; 2012.
Al-Taey DKA, AL-Naely IJC, Kshash BH. A study on effects of water quality, cultivars, organic and chemical fertilizers on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) growth and yield to calculate the economic feasibility. Bulgarian Journal of Agri-cultural Science. 2017;25(6):1239-1245.
Al-Masoum A, Saghir AR, Itami S. Soil solarization for weed management in U.A.E., Emirate Agriculture Sciences Journal .1993;7:507-510.
AL-Maliki S, Al-Amery A, Sallal M, Radhi A, Al-Taey DKA. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza and organic wastes on soil carbon mineralisation, actinomycete sand nutrient content in maize plants (Zea mays L.). Malaysian Journal of Soil Science. 2021; 25:107-124.
Klute A. Water retention laboratory methods. Methods of Soil Analysis, part 1. Agronomy Mon. 1986;26:635-660.
Ali N. Sh. Fertilizers and their applications. Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research. University of Baghdad - College of Agriculture; 2012.
Kovda VA, Vanden Berg C, Hangun RM. Drainage and salinity. FAO. UNE Co. London; 1973.
Keller J, Karmeli D. Trickle irrigation design parameters. Transactions of the ASAE. 1974;17:678–684.
Christiansen JE. Irrigation by the sprinkler University of California, Berkely, California. Reprinted 1972. Utah State University, Logan Utah. 1942;124.
Allen RG, Pereira LS, Raes D, Smith M. Crop evapotranspiration, FAO Irrigation and Drainage. 1998;Paper 56, Rome.
Al-Tayf NI, Al-Hadithi IK. Irrigation, its basics and applications, Directorate of Dar Al-Kutub for Printing and Publishing, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, Ministry of Education and Scientific Research; 1988.
Wang M, Zheng Q, Shen Q, Guo S. The critical role of potassium in plant stress response. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013;14:7370-7390.
Adeniran KA, Amodu MO, Adeniji FA. Requirements of some selected crops in the Kamp dam irrigation project. Australian J.Agric. Eng. 2010;1(4):119-125.
Uddin S, Parvin S, Awal M. Morpho-physiological aspect of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) in response to water stress. 2013;3(2):137-148.
Zin El-Abedin TK. Effect of pulse drip irrigation on soil moisture distribution and maize production in clay soil. Annual Conference of the Miser Society Agronomy Journal. 2006;10:1032-1050.
Yahya Sh. H, Abdul Razzaq MM. Effect of magnetic irrigation methods on sunflower yield and its components. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2015; 46(3):330-341.
Al-Salmi FBT. Effect of different irrigation methods and foliar nutrition on growth and yield of Sorghum bicolour Monech (L.). Master Thesis - College of Agriculture - Al-Qasim Green University; 2020.
Lamm FR, Camp CR. Subsurface drip irrigation. Chapter 13; 2007.
Al-Dhafiri AAA. Effect of mulching on evapotranspiration and its relationship to soil moisture and maize yield growth. PhD thesis. College of Agriculture. Baghdad University; 1998.
Al-Qaisi QFHA. Role of wheat residues and tillage on growth and yield of maize under different irrigation levels. Master Thesis - College of Agriculture - Al-Qasim Green University; 2017.
Al-Murad HA. Sh. Effect of soil compaction on some physical and mechanical properties and its relationship to plant water consumption. Master Thesis. College of Agriculture. Albasrah University; 1998.
Lahmod NR, Alkooranee JT, Gatea A, Rodrigo-Comino J.. Effect of wheat straw as a cover crop on the chlorophyll, seed, and oilseed yield of Trigonella foeunm graecum L under water deficiency and weed competition. Journal of Plants. 2019; 8:503-507.
Faleh A. Sh. Estimation of the water needs of maize crop based on deficient irrigation and comparing it with climatic equations and evaporation measures. PhD thesis, College of Agriculture. Baghdad University; 2011.
Lahmoud NR. Allelopathic effects of sorghum [Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench] on companion weeds and next crop. PhD thesis - College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad; 2012.
Zafar MK, Abbasil A, Khaliq, Rehman Z. Effect of combining organic materials with inorganic phosphorus sources on growth, yield, energy content and phosphorus uptake in maize at Rawalakot Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. Arch. Appl. Sci. Res., 2011;3(2):199-212.
Al-Dougji IHA, Hassan AO, Hamid NN. Effect of planting distance and soil coverage on the growth and yield of Cucumbers sativus L. grown in greenhouses, Basra Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2008;22(2):35-47.
Al-Bahadli AA. Effect of bread wheat residues and low doses of Trifluralin on the growth and production of mung bean and companion weeds. PhD thesis - College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad; 2015.
Al-Eqaili SN, Lahmod NR, Eshkandi OH. Weed management in sesame field (Sesamum indicum L ) using wheat straw and tillage or no tillage systems. American Journal Agricultural and Biological Sciences. 2016;32(4):23-26.
Al-Omari KAH. Effect of soil mulching, spraying of phosphorus and humic acid on growth and yield of broad bean. Master Thesis - College of Agriculture - Al-Qasim Green University; 2020.
Al-Fahdawi WAT. Role of potassium fertilization in reducing water stress on the growth and yield of Vigna radiata L. . PhD thesis - College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad; 2015.
Al-Jumaily NMF. Effect of scheduling irrigation according to growth stages and spraying zinc on the growth and yield of yellow corn (Zea mays L). Master Thesis, College of Agriculture - University of Anbar; 2008.
Yu Qiu G, Wang L, He X, Zangh X, Chen S, Chen J, Yang Y. Water use efficiency and evapotranspiration of winter wheat and its response to irrigation regime in the north China plain. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 2008;148(11):1848- 1859.
Abdel-Ghani AMT. Effect of planting distances between the lines and the hole on growth characteristics, yield and its components of sorghum. Thesis College of Agriculture and Forestry - University of Mosul; 1996.
Cadavid LF, El-Sharkawy MA, Acosta A, Sanchez T. Long-term effects of mulch, fertilization and tillage on cassava grown in sandy soils in northern Colombia. Field Crops Research. 1998;57:45-56.
Ali EH. Effect of planting date, potassium fertilization and soil mulching on growth, flowering and yield of tomatoes grown inside greenhouses in Basra Governorate. PhD thesis. College of Agriculture - University of Basra; 2001.
Roth CM, James PS, Gary MP. Allelopathy of sorghum on wheat under several tillage systems. Agronomy Journal. 2000;92:855-860.