Main Article Content
Gossypium hirsutum is a cash crop due to its products, such as textile fiber and cottonseed oil. Gossypol is a secondary metabolite rich in cottonseeds and is toxic to cattle, insects, microorganisms, and humans. Oxycarenus laetus is a pest of G. hirsutum that feeds on cottonseed; but, it is unaffected by gossypol. The role played by gut bacteria in the detoxification of various plant toxins is already established. Hence, in this study, we have attempted to isolate and identify gossypol-tolerant bacteria from the gut of O. laetus. We have extracted the gut of O. laetus and plated it on the basal media with gossypol as the sole carbon source. Bacterial colonies were identified by sequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We found Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to be gossypol tolerating bacteria in the gut of O. laetus. We also performed a comparative proteome profiling of these two bacteria with susceptible bacteria E. faecalis and M. lylae to identify proteins that could be rendering tolerance to these two species.
Tarazi R, Jimenez JLS, Vaslin MFS. Biotechnological solutions for major cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) pathogens and pests. Biotechnol. Res. Innov. 2019;3:19–26.
Pratheepa M, Meena K, Subramaniam KR, Venugopalan R, Bheemanna H. Seasonal population fluctuations of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) in Relation to Biotic and Abiotic Environmental Factors at Raichur, Karnataka, India. J. Biol. Control. 2010;24:47–50.
Blanco CA, et al. Current situation of pests targeted by Bt crops in Latin America. Current Opinion in Insect Science. 2016; 15:131–138.
Sani I, et al. A review of the biology and control of whitefly, bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), with special reference to biological control using entomopathogenic fungi. Insects. 2020;11: 1–18.
Rajashekhar M, Kalia VK. Native Bt strains efficacy against cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover. 2017;6:938–940.
Attique MR, Ahmad Z. Investigation of Thrips tabaci Lind. as a cotton pest and the development of strategies for its control in Punjab. Crop Prot. 1990;9:469–473.
Spodek M, et al. The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Israel: Pest status, host plants and natural enemies. Phytoparasitica. 2018;46:45–55.
Asif MU, Muhammad R, Khan MH, Sohail M. Seasonal population dynamics of cotton jassid (Amrasca devastans) in different cotton varieties under field conditions. J. Entomol. Res. 2019;43:315–318.
Khan MA, Gogi MD, Bashir MH, Hussain M, Rashid MA. Assessment of density-dependent feeding damage by the cotton dusky bug, Oxycarenus laetus Kirby (Hemiptera : Lygaeidae), in Cotton. 2014; 198–206.
Karar H, et al. The impact of adjacent habitats on population dynamics of red cotton bugs and lint quality. PLoS One. 2020;15:1–10.
Muthyala S, Patil BV. Biology of Dusky Cotton Bug, Oxycarenus laetus Kirby (Hemiptera : Lygaeidae) on Cotton. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci. 2004;17:341–344.
Muthyala S, Patil BV, Srinivas M. Seasonal incidence and management of dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus laetus Kirby on cotton. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci. 2004; 17:482–486.
Keshmiri-Neghab H, Goliaei B. Therapeutic potential of gossypol: An overview. Pharmaceutical Biology. 2014; 52:124–128.
Gadelha ICN, Fonseca NBS, Oloris SCS, Melo MM, Soto-blanco B. Gossypol Toxicity from Cottonseed Products. 2014; 4–6.
Stipanovic RD, Lopez Juan DJ, Dowd MK, Puckhaber LS, Duke SE. Effect of Racemic and (+)- and (−)-Gossypol on the Survival and Development of Helicoverpa zea Larvae. J. Chem. Ecol. 2006;32:959–968.
Jing TZ, QI FH, Wang ZY. Most dominant roles of insect gut bacteria: Digestion, detoxification, or essential nutrient provision? Microbiome. 2020;8:1–20.
Muhammad A, Habineza P, Ji T, Hou Y, Shi Z. Intestinal microbiota confer protection by priming the immune system of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae). Front. Physiol. 2019;10: 1–13.
Hassan B, Siddiqui JA, Xu Y. Vertically transmitted gut bacteria and nutrition influence the immunity and fitness of Bactrocera dorsalis Larvae. Front. Microbiol. 2020;11:1–14.
De Almeida LG, De Moraes LAB, Trigo JR, Omoto C, Cônsoli FL. The gut microbiota of insecticide-resistant insects houses insecticide-degrading bacteria: A potential source for biotechnological exploitation. PLoS One. 2017;12:1–19.
Ceja-Navarro JA, et al. Gut microbiota mediate caffeine detoxification in the primary insect pest of coffee. Nat. Commun. 2015;6:7618.
Kafil M, Bandani AR, Kaltenpoth M, Goldansaz SH, Alavi SM. Role of symbiotic bacteria in the growth and development of the Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps. J. Insect Sci. 2013;13:1–12.
Zhang S, et al. The gut microbiota in camellia weevils are influenced by plant secondary Metabolites and Contribute to Saponin Degradation. MSystems. 2020;5: 1–17.
Santos-Garcia D, Mestre-Rincon N, Zchori-Fein E, Morin, S. Inside out: Microbiota dynamics during host-plant adaptation of whiteflies. ISMEJ. 2020;14:847–856.
Zhang Y, et al. Isolation and characterization of a novel gossypol-degrading bacteria Bacillus subtilis strain Rumen Bacillus Subtilis. Asian-Australasian J. Anim. Sci. 2018;31:63–70.
Microbial C. Computing for comparative microbial genomics. Computing for Comparative Microbial Genomics; 2009.
Reinecke F, et al. Isolation and characterization of an Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain B3 and other bacteria capable to degrade the synthetic chelating agent iminodisuccinate. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 2000;188:41–46.
Cai L, Rensing C, Li X, Wang G. Novel gene clusters involved in arsenite oxidation and resistance in two arsenite oxidizers: Achromobacter sp. SY8 and Pseudomonas sp. TS44. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2009;83:715–725.
Jencova V, et al. Nucleotide sequence, organization and characterization of the (halo) aromatic acid catabolic plasmid pA81 from Achromobacter xylosoxidans A8. Res. Microbiol. 2008; 159:118–127.
Deng MC, et al. Isolation and characterization of a novel hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium Achromobacter sp. HZ01 from the crude oil-contaminated seawater at the Daya Bay, southern China. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2014;83:79–86.
Chai LY, Wang YY, Yang ZH, Wang QW, Wang HY. Detoxification of chromium-containing slag by Achromobacter sp. CH-1 and selective recovery of chromium. Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China English Ed. 2010;20:1500–1504.
Kowalczyk A, Chyc M, Ryszka P, Latowski D. Achromobacter xylosoxidans as a new microorganism strain colonizing high-density polyethylene as a key step to its biodegradation. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2016;23:11349–11356.
Chellaiah ER. Cadmium (heavy metals) bioremediation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A minireview. Appl. Water Sci. 2018;8:1–10.
Muriel-Millán LF, et al. Functional and genomic characterization of a pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated from the southwestern gulf of mexico reveals an enhanced adaptation for long-chain alkane degradation. Front. Mar. Sci. 2019;6:1–15.
NS S, DK S. Biodegradation of endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate by Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain C8B in broth medium. Biodegradation. 2011;22: 845–857.
Briceño G, et al. Pesticide-Tolerant bacteria isolated from a biopurification system to remove commonly used pesticides to protect water resources. PLoS One. 2020; 15:1–20.
Nzila A, et al. Pyrene biodegradation and proteomic analysis in Achromobacter xylosoxidans, PY4 strain. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegradation. 2018;130:40–47.
Wu T, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa L10: A hydrocarbon-degrading, biosurfactant-producing, and plant-growth-promoting endophytic bacterium isolated from a Reed (Phragmites australis). Front. Microbiol. 2018;9:1–12.
Medić A, et al. A comprehensive study of conditions of the biodegradation of a plastic additive 2,6-di-: Tert -butylphenol and proteomic changes in the degrader Pseudomonas aeruginosa san ai. RSC Adv. 2019;9:23696–23710.
Hong YH, et al. Genome sequencing reveals the potential of Achromobacter sp. HZ01 for bioremediation. Front. Microbiol. 2017;8:1–14.
Li Y, Tian Y, Hao Z, Ma Y. Complete genome sequence of the aromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans DN002. Arch. Microbiol. 2020;202:2849–2853.