Main Article Content
The study was conducted during the winter season 2018-2019 in the lethal canopy of the College of Agriculture, University of Basrah to find out the effect of spraying with yeast extract and organic fertilizer Algidex on the growth and flowering of the Chinese carnation plant. The factorial experiments were carried out according to the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates and two factors, the first three concentrations of yeast extract were 0, 1 and 2 ml L-1 and the second three concentrations of organic fertilizer were 0, 2 and 4 ml L-1, and the interaction between them. The means of the treatments were compared according to the revised least significant difference test (R-L.S.D) at the level of probability (5%). The results showed the significant superiority of the treatment of spraying with yeast extract at a concentration of 2 ml L-1 in the vegetative growth characteristics as the height of the plant, the number of leaves and the dry weight of the vegetative growth were increased, while the rate of root length, fresh, and dry weight of the roots were increased at concentrations 1 and 2 ml L-1. The treatment with a concentration of 2 ml L-1 increased the fresh and dry weight of the flowers, while the fresh weight of the shoot increased at a concentration of 1 ml L-1. On the other hand, spraying with an organic fertilizer at concentrations 2 and 4 ml L-1 improved the vegetative, root, and flower characteristics of the plant. The interaction between yeast extract at a concentration of 2 ml L-1 and organic fertilizer at a concentration of 2 or 4 ml L-1 had a significant effect in improving most vegetative, flower, and root characteristics.
WHO, Medicinal plants in the Republic of Korea, World Health Organization, Regional Office for Western Pacific, Manila, Philippines; 1998.
Milani M, Martins JD, Lopes SJ, Streck NA. Growth, plastochron, and the final number of nodes of China pink seedlings grown on different substrates. Revista Ceres. 2017;64(4):413-8.
Bown D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their uses Dorling Kindersley. London.
Li X. Chinese Material Medical: Combinations and applications. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2002.
Brown K. Edible Flowers: from Garden to Plate: 25 Recipes and an A–Z pictorial; 2011.
Creasy R. The Edible Flower Garden. Tuttle Publishing; 2012.
Thompson, Morgan. Edible flowers guide; 2013.
Al-Abadi JS, Salih HM, Saadoun HS. Trace elements and their uses as a spray on all agricultural crops. General Authority for Agricultural Extension and Cooperation, Extension Bulletin. 2007N;41.
Abdul KS. The physiology of the nutrient elements in the plant. Directorate of Dar Al-Kutub for Printing and Publishing, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Salah Al-Din University. 1988;464.
Jones ER. A growers guide to the foliar feeding of plants. Washington and Oregon Farmer. 1995;28:13–17.
El-Ghamriny EA, Arisha HM, Nour KA. Studies on tomato flowering, fruit set, yield and quality in summer that spraying with thiamine, ascorbic acid and yeast. Zagazig. J. Agric. Rec. 1999;26(5):1345-1364.
Amer SSA. Growth, green pods yield and seeds yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) as affected by active dry yeast, salicylic acid and their interaction. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura. Univ. 2004;29(3):1407-1422.
Ghoname AA, Mona G, Dawood GS, Riad, El-Tohamy WA. Effect of nitrogen forms and biostimulants foliar application on the growth, yield and chemical composition of hot pepper grown under sandy soil conditions. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 2009;5(5):840-852.
Barnett JA, Payne RW, Yarrow D. Yeasts characteristics and identification. Cambridge Univ. Press Publi. By the Press Syndicate of the Univ. of Cambridge Camb. 1990;999.
Kaliaperuamal N, Chennubhotla VSK, Kalimuthu S. Seaweed resource of India. Seaweed Res. Utiln. 1987;41:51- 99.
Dawood ZE, Al-Alaf AH, Al-Alam ATS. The effect of spraying with marine algae extract and urea on the growth of green bean seedlings (Pistacia khinjuk Stocks). Al-Rafidain Agriculture Journal. 2013; 41(1):68-59.
Chapman VJ, Chapman DJ. Seaweeds and Their Uses. 3rd Edition. Chapman and Hall. London New York. 1980;30-42.
Crouch IJ, van Staden J. Evidence for the presence of plant growth regulators in commercial seaweed products. Plant Growth Regul. 1993;13:21–29.
Stirk WA, Novaik O, Strnad M, van Staden J. Cytokinins in macro algae. Plant Growth Regul. 2003;41:13–24.
Yokoya NS, Stirk WA, van Staden J, Nova O, Tureckova V, Pencik A, Strnad M. Endogenous cytokinins, auxins, and abscisic acid in red algae. Brazil. J. Phycol. 2010;46:1198–1205.
Blunden G, Morse PF, Mathe I, Hohmann J, Critchley AT, Morrell S. Betaine yields from marine algal species utilized in the preparation of seaweed extracts used in agriculture. Nat. Prod. Commun. 2010;5:581–585.
Prasad K, Das AK, Oza MD, Brahmbhatt H, Siddhanta AK, Meena R, et al. Detection and quantification of some plant growth regulators in a seaweed-based foliar spray employing a mass spectrometric technique sans chromatographic separation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2010;58:4594–4601.
Al-Rawi KM, Khalaf Allah AA. Design and Analysis of Agricultural Experiments. House of Books for Printing and Publishing, University of Mosul, Iraq. 2000;488.
Al-Sahaf FR, Al-Zarfi MTH, Sahib AR, Sahib TH. Effect of spraying dry yeast extract and salicylic acid on growth and flowering of Mathoila incaana L. Al-Kufa Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2017;9(1):52-32.
Al-Doghachi IH, Hamza RK, Issa WM. A physiological study of the effect of spraying with seaweed extract and the method of addition of active yeast and their interactions on the vegetative and flowering growth of Cuminum cyminum L. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2012;25(1):12-1.
Nassar RMA, Yasser M, Ahmed M, Nassar DMA. Effect of Foliar Spray with Active Yeast Extract on Morphological, Anatomical and Yield Characteristics of Kidney Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 2011;5(5):1071-1079.
Nagoda WT. Yeast Technology Universal Foods. Corporation Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Published by Van Printic- Hall of India, Newdelhi. India; 1991.
El- Sherbeny SE, Khalil M, Hsssepn MS. Growth and productivity of rue (Ruts graveolens) under different foliar fertilizers application. J. Appli. Sci. Res. 2007;3(5): 399- 407.
Sarhan TZ, Samira T, Ali Sanaa, Rasheed MS. Effect of bread yeast application and seaweed extract on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plant growth, yield and fruit quality. Mesopotamia J. of Agric. 2011;39(2):26-34.
Gollan JR, Wright JT. Limited grazing by native herbivores on the invasive seaweed caulerpa. Taxi folia in a temperate. Australia Estuary Marine and Fresh Water Research. 2006;57(7):685-694.
Thomas SCL. Nutrient weeds as soil amendments for organically growth Herbs. J. of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plant. 1996;4(1):3-8.
Attememe JYA. The effect of humic acid and seaweed extracts on the growth, chemical characteristics Rosmarinus officinalis L. the 6th scientific conference, Biology Dept., College of Education, University of Tikrit. Plant Sci. 2009;1-17.
Mohammed AK. Plant Physiology. Second Part, House of Books for Printing and Publishing, University of Mosul, Iraq; 1985.
Al-Nuaimi SNA. Fertilizers and soil fertility. house of books for printing and publishing, Ministry of Higher Education, University of Mosul, Iraq; 1999.
Alwan AO, Al-Masaudi SKS. Effect of Cultivars and water irrigation quality and foliar application of some wheat cultivars. Journal of Kufa University of Life Sciences, Special Issue, Second Conference of Life Sciences, Education College for Women, University of Kufa. 2016;109-116.
Verma V. Textbook of plant physiology. Ane Book. Offset. PVT. LTD., India; 2009.
Yassin BT. Fundamentals of Plant Physiology. Ahbab Al-Mustafa Library, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Egypt; 2001.
Nofal HF, El-Segai MU, Engy A Seleem. Influence of yeast natural extract on growth , flowering , yield and some anatomical structure of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) plant . J. Plant Production, Mansoura Univ. 2016;7(2):177-183.
Sridhar,S and R. Rengasamy. Effect of seaweed liquid fertilizer on growth, biochemical constituents and yield of (Tagetes erecta) under field trial; 2010.