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The properties of nanoparticle depend largely on their size, shape and distribution. There are processes (physical, chemical and biological) which are extensively used for the synthesis of various metallic nanoparticles (Ag, Au, Fe, Cu, Cd, Pd, Pt, Ti and Zn etc.) employed for numerous applications. As per literature studies, green synthesis of nanoparticle development is gaining attention in comparison to other methods, due to its cost effectiveness, simplicity and no production of toxic by-products. The main challenge for all the current processes of nanoparticle synthesis is the production of size and shape specific nanoparticles which is crucial for designing particular application. Recently, the research to illustrate the profound effect of specific sized nanoparticles has begun.  The factors such as temperature, pH, and reducing agent: metal solution ratios influence the kinetics of nanoparticles, thereby affecting the final shape and size of synthesised nanoparticle. Types of nanoparticles (Ag, Au, Si, Cu, Fe, Zn etc.), size (1- 100 nm) and shapes (spherical, triangular, hexagonal, decahedral etc.) defines its function and usability, therefore tuning nanoparticles using various processes would be helpful in resolving existing hurdles in agriculture, medical sciences, textiles and environment protection etc. Therefore, the present review provides an overview of the various growth parameters for obtaining desirable shaped/sized nanoparticles with special emphasis on their potential applications in various sectors.

Nanoparticles, green synthesis, kinetics, growth parameters, reducing agents

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