Main Article Content



Freshness indicators provides information about the quality of foods to users. These indicators react to variations in food occurring from both metabolic action and microbial growth. Microbial spoilage of foodstuffs is one of the major reason that leads to alterations in both the acidic and basic state of the food or its atmosphere. The focus of our study was to explore the prospects of developing a pH sensitive indicator film from kappa carrageenan based anthocyanin film. The anthocyanin extracted from grape pomace were incorporated into kappa-carrageenan film forming solution in varying proportions of 0.5%, 1% and 2% respectively. The physical, colorimetric property and morphology of the Kappa-carrageenan grape anthocyanin films were carried out. The pH sensitivity of the film was also studied. The control film appeared to be transparent, uniform and flexible in visual appearance, whereas the Kappa-carrageenan grape anthocyanin films appeared pink. The X-ray diffraction pattern indicates a broad hump at around 10-25° shows the Kappa carrageenan film is of semi-crystalline state. Among three kappa-carrageenan- anthocyanin films, most prominent colour change was observed with Kappa-carrageenan-anthocyanin film with 2% anthocyanin due to a prominent amount of anthocyanin incorporation. The developed Kappa-carrageenan grape anthocyanin film can certainly emerge out as a pH sensitive indicator film due to its several benefits and could be a potential material to overcome environmental threats caused by non-biodegradable materials.

Carrageenan, anthocyanin, pH sensitive indicator film, biodegradable.

Article Details

How to Cite
Original Research Article


Zhang X, Lu S, Chen X. A visual pH sensing film using natural dyes from Bauhinia blakeana Dunn. Sensors and actuators B: Chemical. 2014;198:268-73.

Kannampilly NJ, Thangavel K, Peter D, Rose L. Milk Spoilage detection by Impedance measurement. International Journal of Current Research and Review (IJCRR). 2021;13(5):183-187.

Choi I, Lee JY, Lacroix M, Han J. Intelligent pH indicator film composed of agar/potato starch and anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potato. Food Chemistry. 2017;218:122-8.

Zia KM, Tabasum S, Nasif M, Sultan N, Aslam N, Noreen A, Zuber M. A review on synthesis, properties and applications of natural polymer based carrageenan blends and composites. International journal of biological macromolecules. 2017;96:282-301.

Zepon KM, Martins MM, Marques MS, Heckler JM, Morisso FD, Moreira MG, Ziulkoski AL, Kanis LA. Smart wound dressing based on κ–carrageenan/locust bean gum/cranberry extract for monitoring bacterial infections. Carbohydrate polymers. 2019;206:362-70.

Vankar PS, Shukla D. Natural dyeing with anthocyanins from Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2011;122(5):3361-8.

Kannampilly NJ, Devadas CT. Kinetic Modelling of Anthocyanin Extraction from Grape (Vitis vinifera) using Response Surface Methodology. International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering (IJITEE). 2019;8(11):3015-3019.

Liu Y, Qin Y, Bai R, Zhang X, Yuan L, Liu J. Preparation of pH-sensitive and antioxidant packaging films based on κ-carrageenan and mulberry polyphenolic extract. International journal of biological macromolecules. 2019;134:993-1001.

Liu J, Meng CG, Liu S, Kan J, Jin CH. Preparation and characterization of protocatechuic acid grafted chitosan films with antioxidant activity. Food Hydrocolloids. 2017;63:457-66.

Kanatt SR, Rao MS, Chawla SP, Sharma A. Active chitosan–polyvinyl alcohol films with natural extracts. Food Hydrocolloids. 2012;29(2):290-7.

Zhong Y, Li Y. Effects of surfactants on the functional and structural properties of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) starch/ascorbic acid films. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2011;85(3): 622-8.

Wang X, Yong H, Gao L, Li L, Jin M, Liu J. Preparation and characterization of antioxidant and pH-sensitive films based on chitosan and black soybean seed coat extract. Food hydrocolloids. 2019;89:56-66.

Ma Q, Wang L. Preparation of a visual pH-sensing film based on tara gum incorporating cellulose and extracts from grape skins. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2016;235:401-7.

Liu J, Wang H, Wang P, Guo M, Jiang S, Li X, Jiang S. Films based on κ-carrageenan incorporated with curcumin for freshness monitoring. Food Hydrocolloids. 2018;83:134-42.

Kanmani P, Rhim JW. Development and characterization of carrageenan/grapefruit seed extract composite films for active packaging. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2014;68:258-66.

Corrales M, Han JH, Tauscher B. Antimicrobial properties of grape seed extracts and their effectiveness after incorporation into pea starch films. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 2009;44(2):425-33.

Rubilar JF, Cruz RM, Silva HD, Vicente AA, Khmelinskii I, Vieira MC. Physico-mechanical properties of chitosan films with carvacrol and grape seed extract. Journal of Food Engineering. 2013; 115(4):466-74.

Song HY, Shin YJ, Song KB. Preparation of a barley bran protein–gelatin composite film containing grapefruit seed extract and its application in salmon packaging. Journal of Food Engineering. 2012;113(4): 541-7.

Tavassoli-Kafrani E, Shekarchizadeh H, Masoudpour-Behabadi M. Development of edible films and coatings from alginates and carrageenans. Carbohydrate polymers. 2016;137:360-74.

Liew JW, Loh KS, Ahmad A, Lim KL, Wan Daud WR. Synthesis and characterization of modified κ-carrageenan for enhanced proton conductivity as polymer electrolyte membrane. Plos One. 2017;12(9):e0185313.

Parthibavarman M, Bhuvaneshwari S, Jayashree M, BoopathiRaja R. Green synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles using extract of apple and grape and with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity. Bio Nano Science. 2019;9(2):423-32.

Paşcalău V, Popescu V, Popescu GL, Dudescu MC, Borodi G, Dinescu A, Perhaiţa I, Paul M. The alginate/k-carrageenan ratio's influence on the properties of the cross-linked composite films. Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2012;536:S418-23.

Marques PT, Lima AM, Bianco G, Laurindo JB, Borsali R, Le Meins JF, Soldi V. Thermal properties and stability of cassava starch films cross-linked with tetraethylene glycol diacrylate. Polymer Degradation and Stability. 2006;91(4):726-32.

Van de Velde F, Knutsen SH, Usov AI, Rollema HS, Cerezo AS. 1H and 13C high resolution NMR spectroscopy of carrageenans: Application in research and industry. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2002;13(3):73-92.

Halász K, Csóka L. Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) pomace extract immobilized in chitosan for colorimetric pH indicator film application. Food packaging and shelf life. 2018;16:185-93.

Wang X, Yong H, Gao L, Li L, Jin M, Liu J. Preparation and characterization of antioxidant and pH-sensitive films based on chitosan and black soybean seed coat extract. Food Hydrocolloids. 2019;89:56-66.

Liang T, Wang L. A pH-sensing film from tamarind seed polysaccharide with litmus lichen extract as an indicator. Polymers. 2018;10(1):13.