Main Article Content
In Asia Oryza sativa Lin. (Rice) is the most important food crop and the staple food of the majority of the populace in many areas of the world. In Rice production, various weeds are the main cause of serious yield decrease problems worldwide.
Weeds participate for getting an acceptable quantity of nutrients, humidity, light and the increasing area. Losses caused by needs vary from one country to another, depending on the predominant weed flora and the control, methods practised by farmers. In recent years, rice production has amplified with the introduction of high yielding varieties, but their maximum yield potential has not been fully realized owing to improper weed management. In India, weeds are mainly controlled manually in rice. However, manual weeding is becoming less cost-effective because of lab crisis at critical times or increased lab costs. Herbicides are substituting labour-intensive weeding at an increasing rate in rice as they are easy to use but the tremendous application of herbicide has resulted in herbicide-resistant crops, shifts in weed flora, and price of weed management to farmers and concerns about the environment.
This paper highlights the fundamental importance of competitive traits which are very significant for controlling weed outbreak.
There is an indispensable requirement to add potentially and ensure varied features of ecological weed control strategies especially preventive measures like herbicide resistance varieties, competitive varieties suitable traits in paddy genotypes possessing leaf number, photosynthetic rate, higher LAI (leaf area index), tiller number, early crop biomass, Increases chlorophyll content, increase specific leaf weight, the taller cultivars, flooding depth, planting density, straw mulching, flooding duration, and nitrogen supply, suitable nutrient management (especially organic amendments), incorporation of paddy straw, rice hull, and its residues in the soil changes the phytotoxic potential of allelochemicals, all these problems must be identified and must be given due attention for effective and sustainable weed control.
Fischer A, Ramirez HV, Lozano J. Suppression of jungle rice (Echinochloa colona (L) Link) by irrigated rice cultivars in Latin America. Agron. J. 1997;89:516–521.
FAO. FAO Statistical Databases. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, Rome. http://www.fao.org (accessed 05.07.16.); 2014.
Jensen LB, Courtois B, Shen L, Li Z, Olofsdotter M, Mauleon RP. Locating Genes Controlling Allelopathic Effects against Barnyard grass in Upland Rice. Agron. J. 2001;93:21–26.
Dilday RH, Nastasi P, Smith Jr RJ. Potential allelopathic activity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) germplasm. Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society, p. 261. direct seeded rice. Indian J. Weed Sci. 1989;47:1-4.
Coleman RD, Gill GS, Rebetzke GJ. Identification of quantitative trait loci for traits conferring weed competitiveness in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 2001;52:1235–1246.
Chung IM, 1, Ham TH, Cho GW, Kwon W, Lee Y, Seo Y, An YJ, Kim SY, Kim SH, Lee J. Study of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) Associated with Allelopathic Trait in Rice. Genes. 2020;11:470.
Kanbar A, Janamatti M, Sudherr E, Vinod MS, Shashidhar HE. Mapping QTLs underlying seedling vigour traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.) Current Sci. 2006;90(1):24-26.
Patni B, Guru SK. Morphophysiological and biochemical parameters associated withcompetitive ability of rice genotypes against weeds. Indian J. plant Physiol. 2012;17:215-223.
Shahaway ET. Rice straw as an allelopathic agent for controlling weeds.Seventeenth Australlian weeds conference. 2010;143-146.
Challaliah O, Burnside OC, Wicks GA, Johnson VA. Competetion between winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars and downy brome (Bromus tectorum). Weed Sci. 1986;34:689-693.
Lemerle D, Verbeek B, Cousens RD, Coombes NE. The potential for selecting wheat varieties strongly competitive against weeds. Weed Res. 1996;36:505-513.
Bravo HR, Copaja SV, Lamborot M. Phytotoxicity of phenolic acids from cereals; 2013.
Chauhan BS, Mahajan G, Sardana V, Timsina J, Jat ML. Productivity and Cheng, F. Hayat, S. Research Progress on the use of Plant Allelopathy in Agriculture and the Physiological and Ecological Mechanisms of Allelopathy. Front. Plant Sci. 2015;6:347.
Dass A, Chandra S, Choudhary AK, Singh G, Sudhishri S. Influence of field re-ponding pattern and plant spacing on rice root shoot characteristics, yield, and water productivity of two modern cultivars under SRI management in Indian Mollisols/14(1). Paddy Water Environ. 2016;14:45–59.
Blackshaw RE, Molnar LJ, Janzen HH. Nitrogen fertilizer timing and applicationmethod affectweed growth and competition with spring wheat. Weed Sci. 2004;52:614-622.
Baetz U, Martinoia E. Root exudates: the hidden part of plant defense. Trends Plant Sci. 2014; 19:90–98.
Amb MK, Ahluwalia AS. Allelopathy: Potential to achieve new milstone in rice cultivation. Rice Sci. 2016;23(4):165-183.
Geofang X, Schcai S, Fudao X, Yun Z, Naogchi K, David RC. Relationship Between Allelopathic Effects and Functional Traits of Different Allelopathic Potential Rice Accessions at Different Growth Stages. Rice science. 2018;25(1):32-41.
Andrew IKS, Storkey J, Sparks DL. A review of the potential of or competitive cereal cultivars as a tool in integrated weed management. Weed Res. 2015;55:239-248.
Appleby AP, Olson PD, Colbert DR. Winter wheat yield reduction from interference by Italian ryegrass. Agronomy Jou. 1976;68:463-466.
Bhadoria PBS. Allelopathy: A natural way towards weed management. Amer J Exp Agric. 2011;1(1):7-20.
Chung IM, Kim KH, Ahn JK, Lee SB, Kim SH, Hahn SJ. Comparison of allelopathic potential of rice leaves, straw, and hull extracts on barnyard grass. Agron. J. 2003;95:1063–1070.
Olofsdotter M, Jensen LB, Courtois B. Improving crop competitive ability using allelopathy an example from rice. Plant Breeding. 2002;121:1-9.
Kirk GJD, Santos EE, Findenegg GR. Phosphate solubilization by organic anion excretion from rice (Oryza sativa L.) growing in aerobic soil. Plant Soil. 1999;211:11–18.
Jannink JL, Orf JF, Jordan NR, Shaw RG. Index selection for weed suppressive ability in Soybean. Crop Sci. 2000;40:10871094.
Zhao DL, Atlin GN, Bastiaans L, Spiertz JHJ. Developing selection protocols for weedcompetitiveness in aerobic rice. Field Crop Research. 2006;97:272-285.
Caton BP, Cope AE, Mortimer M. Growth traits of diverse rice cultivars under severe competition: Implications for screening for competitiveness. Field Crops Res. 2003;83:157-172.
Ogg AG, Seefeldt. Characterizing traits that enhance the competitiveness of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) against jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica). Weed Sci. 1999;47:74–80.
Vandleur RK, Gill GS. The impact of plant breeding on the grain yield and competitive ability ofwheat in Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Res. 2004;55:855–861.
Wicks GA, Ramsel RE, Nordquist PT, Schmidt, JW, Challaiah O. Impacts of wheat cultivars on establishment and suppression. Weed Tech. 1986;18:988:998.
Gooding MJ, Thompson AJ, Davies WP. Interception of photosynthetically active radiation, competitive ability and yield of organically grown wheat varieties. Physiol of Varieties Aspects of Applied Biol. 1993;34:355–362.
Choudhary AK, Suri VK. Integrated nutrient management technology for direct-seeded upland rice (Oryza sativa) in northwestern Himalayas. Commun. Soil Sci. Pl. Anal. 2014;45(6):777-784.
Sarker BC, Meshkat Z, Majumder UK, Islam A, Roy B. Growth and yield potential of some local and high yielding boro rice cultivars seedling vigor under submergence and submergence-induced SUB1A gene expression in Indica and Japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.). Aust. J. Crop Sci. 2013;4: 264–272.
Mahajan G, Chauhan BS. The role of cultivars in managing weeds in dryseeded production system.Crop Protection. 2013;49:52-57.
Huel DG, Hucl P. Genotypic variation for competitive ability in spring wheat. Plant Breed. 1996; 115,325:329.we32.
Hoad SP, Davies DSK, Topp CFE. How to select varieties for organic farming: Science and practice. In:What will organic farming deliver? Aspects of Applies boil. 2006;79:117-120.
Hensen PK, Kristensen K, Willas J. Aweed supreesive index for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties. Weed Res. 2008;48:225-236.
Mahajan G, Poonia V, Chauhan BS. Integrated weed management using planting pattern, cultivar, and herbicide in dry-seeded rice in northwest India. Weed Sci. 2014;62:350:359.
Zhang Q, Zheng XY, Lin SX, Gu CZ, Li JY, Fang CX. Tanscriptome analysis reveals that Barnyard grass exudates increase the allelopathic potential of allelopathioc and nonallelopathic rice (Oryza sativa) accessions. Rice. 2019;12(1):30.
Fischer AJ, Ramirez HV, Gibson KD, Da Silveira Pinheiro B. Competitiveness of semi dwarf upland rice cultivars against Palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha) and Signal grass (B. decumbens). Agron. J. 2001;93:967–973.
Gibson KD, Fischer AJ, Foin TC, Hill JE. Crop traits related to weed suppression I water seeded rice (Oryza sativa). 2003;51(1):87-93.
Namuco OS, Cairns JE, Johnson DE. Investigating early vigour in upland rice (Oryza sativa L.): Part I.Seedling growth and grain yield in competition with weeds. Field Crops Res. 2009;113:197–206.
Saito K, Azoma K, Rodenberg J. Plant characteristics associated with weed competitiveness of rice under upland and lowland conditions in West Africa. Field Crops Res. 2010;116:308-317.
Harding SS, Jalloh AB. Evaluation of the relative weed competitiveness of upland rice varieties in Sierra Leone. African J. Plant Sci. 5: 396-400. Indian Mollisols. Paddy Water Environ. 2011;14, 45-59
Kaur R, Singh K, Deol JS, Dass A, Choudhary AK. Possibilities of improving performance of direct seeded rice using plant growth regulators: a review. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. India Sec. B Biol. Sci. 2015;85:909-922.
Khan AH, Vishya RD. Allelopathic effects of different crop residues on germination and growth of weeds Proceedings of first national symposium on allelopathy in agroecosystem.Indian society of allelopathy,Haryana Agriculture University, Hissar, India. 1992;50-60.
Xuan TD, Shinkichi T, Khanh TD, Min CL. Biological control of weeds and plant pathogens in paddy rice by exploiting plant allelopathy: an overview. Crop Protection. 2005;24:197-206.
Stevanato P, Trebbi D, Bertaggia M. Root traits and competitiveness against weeds in suger beet. Int. Sugar Jou. 2011;113:497-501.
Narwal SS. Weed management in rice: Wheat rotation by allelopathy. Critical revies in plant science. 2000;19:249-266.
Sampietro DA, Sgariglia MA, Soberon JR, Quiroga EM, Vattuone MA. Role of sugarcane straw allelochemicals in the growth supreession of arrowleaf sida. Environmental and experimental botany. 2007;60(3):495-503.
Kuk YI, Burgos NR, Talbert RE. Evaluation of rice byproducts for weed control. Weed Sci. 2001; 141-147.
Xuan TD, Tsujuki E, Terao H, Matsuo M, Khanh TD, Murayama M, Hong NH. Alfalfa, by products and their incorporation for weed controlin rice. Weed Biology and Management. 2003; 3:137-144.
Hong NH, Xuan TD, Tsuzuki E, Khanh TD. Paddy weed control by higher plants from Southeast Asia. Crop Protection. 2004;23:255-261.
Khanh TD, Chung IM, Tawata S, Xuan TD. Allelopathy for weed management in sustainable agriculture. Health. 2007;1:2.
Kong CH, Hu F, Wang P, Wu JL. Effect of allelopathic rice varieties combined with cultural management options on paddy field weeds. Pest Manage. Sci. 2008;64:276-282.
Fargione J, Tilman D. Plant species traits and capacity for resource reduction predict yield and abundance under competition in nitrogen limited grasslands. Functional Ecol. 2006;20:533-540.
Paul J, Choudhary AK, Suri VK, Sharma AK, Kumar V, Shobhna. Bioresource nutrient recycling and its relationship with bio fertility indicators of Soil Health and Nutrient Dynamics in Rice–Wheat Cropping System Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 2006;45(7):912-925.
Tamak JC, Narwal SS, Singh L, Singh I. Effect of aqueous extract of rice stubble and straw +stubble om germination and seedling growth of wheat, oat, beset and lentil. Crop Res. 1994; 8(1):180-185.
Oburger E, Jones DL. Sampling root exudates - Mission impossible? Rhizosphere.;6:116–133. Crop Protection. 2018;49:52-57.
Haichar FE, Santaella C, Heulin T, Achouak W. Root exudates mediated interactions belowground. Soil Biol. Biochem. 2014;77:69–80.
Soezer A. Why rice farmers are key to tackling climate change in Philippines. UNDP Rep. 24-32. soil health and nutrient dynamics in rice wheat cropping system. Commun. Soil Sci. Pl. Anal. 2015; 45(7):912-924.