Main Article Content
To understand the effect of anthropogenic disturbances, mainly related to insecticide treatment on ant community structure, the present study was conducted on Cameroonian cocoa farms during two consecutive crop cycles. Ant sampling was based on chemical knock down in three smallholding cocoa farms selected in three different agro-ecological zones in the Centre Region of Cameroon. The C-score was used for null model analysis in order to detect deterministic factor of ant community structure and Spearman correlation test to screen relationship between pair species. Seven ant species were identified as a numerically dominant: Crematogaster clariventris, Crematogaster gabonensis, Crematogaster striatula, Camponotus vividus, Cataulacus guineensis, Tetramorium aculeatum and Oecophylla longinoda. Ant communities were structured by the competition and negative relationship were found between dominant species. Insecticide-treatments affected the ant community structure by favoring the acquisition of the dominant status by non-dominant species.
Leston D. The ant mosaic-tropical tree crops and the limiting of pest and diseases. Pans. 1973;19(3):311-339.
Davidson DW. Resource discovery versus resource domination in ants: a functional mechanism for breaking the trade-off. Ecological Entomology. 1998;23:484-490.
Room PM. The relative abundance of ant species in Ghana's cocoa farms. Journal of Animal Ecology. 1971;40:735-751.
Majer JD, Delabie JHC, Smith MRB. Arboreal ant community patterns in Brazilian cocoa farms. Biotropica. 1994;26:73-83.
Andersen AN, Parr CL, Lowe LM, Müller WJ. Contrasting fire-related resilience of ecologically dominant ants in tropical savannas of northern Australia. Diversity and Distributions. 2007;13:438-446.
Tadu Z, Djieto-Lordon C, Yede Messop-Youbi EB, Aléné DC, Fomena A, Babin R. Ant mosaics in cocoa agroforestry systems of Southern Cameroon: influnece of shade on occurence and spatial distribution of dominants ants. Agroforestry System. 2014a;1067- 1079.
Floren A, Freking A, Bielil M, Linsenmair EK. Anthropogenic disturbance changes the structure of arboreal tropical ant communities. Ecography. 2001;24:547-554.
Dejean A, Fisher BL, Corbara B, Rarevohitra R, Randrianaivo R, Rajemison B, Leponce M. Spatial distribution of dominant arboreal ants in a Malagasy Coastal Rainforest: Gaps and presence of an invasive species. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9319. DOI:9310.1371/journal.pone.0009319.
Hölldobler B, Lumsden CJ. Territorial strategy in ants. Science. 1980;210:732-739.
Leston D. The ant mosaic: a fundamental property of cocoa farms. Proceeding of the 4 th International Cocoa Conference. Trinidad. 1972;570-581.
Majer JD. The maintenance of the ant mosaic in Ghana cocoa farm. Journal of Apply Ecology. 1976; 13:123-144.
Majer JD, Camer-Pesci P. Ant species in tropical Australian tree crops and native ecosystems-in there a mosaic. Biotropica. 1991;23(2):173-181.
Majer JD, Delabie JHC. An evaluation of Brasilian cocoa farm ant as potential biological control agents. Journal of Plant Protection in the Tropics. 1993;10(1):43-49.
Dejean A, McKey D, Gibernau M, Belin M. The arboreal ant mosaic in a Camerounian rain forest (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology. 2000;23(3):403-423.
Van Mele P, Cuc NTT. Evolution and status of Oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius) as a pest control agent in citrus in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. International Journal of Pest Management. 2000;46:295-301.
Way MJ, Khoo KC. Role of ants in pest management. Annual Review of Entomology. 1992;37:479-503.
Sonwa DJ, Coulibaly O, Weise SF, Akinwumi Adesina A, Janssens MJJ. Management of cocoa: constraints during acquisition and application of pesticides in the humid forest zones of southern Cameroon. Crop Protection. 2008;27:1159-1164.
Tadu Z, Djiéto-Lordon C, Yede, Messop Youbi EB, Fomena A, Babin R. Ant diversity in different cocoa agroforest habitats in the Centre Region of Cameroon. African Entomology. 2014b;22:388–404.
Mahob RJ, Ndoumbè-Nkeng M, Ten Hoopen GM, Dibog L, Nyassé S, Rutherford M, Mbenoun M, Babin R, Amang J, Mbang A, Yede, Bilong Bilong CF. Pesticides use in cocoa sector in Cameroon: characterization of supply source, nature of actives ingredients, fashion and reasons for their utilization. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2014;8:1976-1989.
Tadu Z, Babin R, Aléné DC, Messop Youbi EB, Yede Dekoninck W, Djieto-Lordon C. Ant assemblage structure on cocoa trees in smallholder farms in the Centre Region of Cameroon. African Journal of Ecology. 2019;00:1-11.
Suchel JB. Les régions climatiques du Cameroun. Les climats du Cameroun. Thèse de Doctorat d'Etat, Université de Saint-Etienne (France). 1988;4.
Letouzey R. Notice de la carte phytogéographique du Cameroun au 1:500 000. Institut de Recherche Agronomique Yaoundé-Cameroun, Institut de la Carte Internationale de la Végégtation Toulouse-France; 1985.
Hölldobler B, Wilson ED. The Ants. The Belknap of Havard University Press Cambridge, Massachusetts; 1990.
Taylor B. The ants of (Sub- Saharan African ) Hymenoptera: Formicidae.in W. Grazingfield, Nottingham, 11, NG11 7FN, U.K. Visiting Academic in the Department of Life Science, University of Nottingham; 2010.
Gotelli N, Entsminger GL. EcoSim: null models software for ecology, version 6.21. Acquired Intelligence, Kesey-Bear; 2001. Available:http://homepages.together.net/~gentsmin/ecosim.html
Gotelli NJ. Null model analysis of species co-occurence patterns. Ecology. 2000;81:2606-2621.
Wei T, Simko V. Correplot: Visualization of a Correlation Matrix. R package version 0.77; 2016. Available:https://github.com/taiyun/corrplot
Davidson DW. The role of resource imbalances in the evolutionary ecology of tropical arboreal ants. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 1997;61:153-181.
Jackson DA. Ant distribution patterns in a Cameroonian cocoa plantation: investigation of the ant mosaic hypothesis. Oecologia. 1984;62:318-324.  Armbrecht I, Jiménez E, Alvarez G, Ulloa-Chacon P, Armbrecht H. An ant mosaic in the Colombian rain forest of Chocco (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology. 2001;37(3B):491-509.
Dejean A, Djieto-Lordon C, Lenoir A. Mosaic ant territories in an african secondary rain forest (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology. 1994;23(3):1-17.
Dejean A, Djieto-Lordon C, Durand JL. Ant mosaic in oil palm plantation of the southwest province of Cameroon: impact on leaf miner beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Apiculture and Social Insect. 1997;90(5):1092-1096.
Armbrecht I, Jiménez E, Alvarez G, Ulloa-Chacon P, Armbrecht H. An ant mosaic in the Colombian rain forest of Chocco (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Sociobiology. 2001;37(3B):491-509.
Levieux J. Description de quelques nids de fourmis de Côte d'Ivoire. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France. 1965;70: 259-265.
Majer JD. The foraging activity of some West African cacao farm ants. Centro de Pesquisasa do Cacau, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brasil. 1982;12:155-162.