Main Article Content
The study aims to investigate the effect of coal mining on the drinking water quality of different water sources in Ankpa, Kogi State, Nigeria. A total of twenty (20) water samples were collected for physico-chemical (pH, Temperature, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, turbidity, hardness), microbial (TPC, TC and E. coli) and heavy metal (Fe, Pb, Cr, Cu, As, Cd, Hg, Mn and Zn) analysis was determined using standard methods. The observed values of EC, TDS, chloride and sulphate were within WHO/NESREA standards. Heavy metals concentrations were generally low across the water sources. Similarly, the concentrations of Fe (0.01 – 0.18±0.048 mg/L), Pb (0.0006 – 0.008±0.002 mg/L), Cu (0.004 – 0.04±0.014 mg/L), Mn (0.003 – 0.032±0.0008 mg/L) and Zn (0.005 – 0.192±0.057 mg/L) were all within the permissible standards. The total coliform count of the water samples ranged from 1.40×102 to 2.00×102. The presence of E.coli in S-2, S-6, S-9, S-10, S-15 and S-19 is an indicator organism of feacal pollution. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) was far less than (<100) the critical value of 100. The Hazard Index (HI) of the metals in water samples showed a low risk (HI<1) across the different age groups. While the cumulative Cancer Risk also shows extremely low risk for the analyzed metals and indicates no adverse effects on human health within the study area.
Odesola IF, Samuel E, Olugasa T. Coal development in Nigeria: Prospects and challenges. Int J Eng. 2013;4(1): 8269.
ICMM I. Independent report on biodiversity offsets. The Biodiversity Consultancy; 2012.
Ejiofor Peters. Foundation of business administration, Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishing Co. Ltd; 1991.
Ibeneme OT. Provision and utilization of instructional equipment for teaching and learning science and technology. Issues in Educational Journal. 2000;1:139-144.
Iyida MN. Impact of coal export and economic development in Nigeria (a case study of Nigerian coal corporation, Enugu). Journal of Business and Management. 2015;17(1):45-50.
Moschini-Carlos V, Pompêo MLM, Lobo FDL, Meirelles ST. Impact of coal mining on water quality of three artificial lakes in Morozini River Basin (Treviso, Santa Catarina State, Brazil). Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia. 2011; 23(3):271-281.
Bell FG, Bullock SET, Hälbich TFJ, Lindsay P. Environmental impacts associated with an abandoned mine in the Witbank Coalfield, South Africa. International Journal of Coal Geology. 2001;45(3):195-216.
Akcil A, Koldas S. Acid Mine Drainage (AMD): causes, treatment and case studies, Journal of Cleaner Production. 2006;14(12–13):1139-1145.
Johnson BD, Hallberg KB. Acid mine drainage remediation option: A review. Science of the Total Environment. 2005;338(1-2):3-14.
Yenilmez F, Kuter N, Emil MK, Aksoy A. Evaluation of pollution levels at an abandoned coal mine site in Turkey with the aid of GIS. Int J Coal Geol. 2011;86(1SI):12–19.
Kronbauer MA, Izquierdo M, Dai S, Waanders FB, Wagner NJ, Mastalerz M, et al. Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: A synoptic view. Sci Total Environ. 2013;456: 95–103.
Zheng YH, Zhang ZG, Yao DX, Chen XY. Characteristics of temporal-spatial distribution and enrichment of heavy metals in coal mine reclaimed soil. J China Coal Soc. 2013;38(8):1476–1483.
Marcovecchio JE, Botte SE, Freije RH. Heavy Metals, Major Metals, Trace Elements. In: Handbook of Water Analysis. L.M. Nollet, (Ed.). 2nd Edn. London: CRC Press. 2007;275-311.
Lazhar Belkhiri, Ammar Tiri, Lotfi Mouni. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in groundwater: A Case Study of the South of Setif Area, East Algeria, Achievements and Challenges of Integrated River Basin Management, Dejan Komatina, Intech Open; 2018.
USEPA, Exposure factors handbook. National center for environmental assessment. United State Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC; 2011.
Ogwuche JA, Odoh DP. Assessment of the Effect of Cessation of Coal Mining on the Socio-economic Condition of Okaba District, KogiState.Scholarly Journal of Education. 2013;2(4):46-51.
Available:http:// www.scholarly-journals.com/SJE ISSN 2315-6155 © 2013 Scholarly-Journals
Adeigbe OC, Salufu AE. Geology and depositional Environment of Campano-Maastrichtian sediments in the Anambra basin, Southeastern Nigeria: Evidence from field relationship and sedimentological study. Earth Sciences Research Journal. 2009;13(2):148-165.
Ile UC, Shuaibu AM, Abdullahi IN, Umar MU. Geotechnical assessment of gully erosion at Ankpa Area, North Central Nigeria. OSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC) e-ISSN. 2015;2278-573.
FDALR. Federal Department of agricultural land resources. The Reconnaissance Soil Survey of Nigeria, ISRIC Library, Waganiagen Netherlands. 1990;1:1-44.
APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 20th Edition, American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Environmental Federation, Washington DC; 1998.
Abou Zakhem B, Hafez R. Heavy metal pollution index for groundwater quality assessment in Damascus Oasis, Syria. Environmental Earth Sciences. 2015;73(10): 6591-6600.
Prasad B, Kumari P. The impact of filling an abandoned open cast mine with fly ash on ground water quality: A case study. Mine Water Environment. 2008;27(1): 40-45.
USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). National primary/secondary and drinking water regulations. National Lakes Assessment: A Collaborative Survey of the Nation's Lakes. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water and Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC; 2009.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, Lyon: IARC. 1993;1-58:1972-1993.
Taiwo AM, Awomeso JA. Assessment of trace metal concentration and health risk of artisanal gold mining activities in Ijeshaland, Osun State, Nigeria – part 1. Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2017;177:1-10.
USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). Baseline human health risk assessment, Vasquez Boulevard and I-70 Superfund site. Denver, CO: U.S. Public Health Service; 2001.
Ayedun H, Gbadebo AM, Idowu OA, Arowolo TA. Toxic elements in groundwater of Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria and their human health risk assessment. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2015;187(6):351.
Joel ES, Maxwell O, Adewoyin OO, Ehi-Eromosele CO, Embong Z, Oyawoye F. Assessment of natural radioactivity in various commercial tiles used for building purposes in Nigeria. MethodsX. 2018;5:8–19.
Salkind NJ. Encyclopedia of research design (Vols. 1-0). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc; 2010.
World Health Organization (W.H.O). Guidelines for Drinking-water quality, Fourth Edition; 2011.
ISBN 978 92 4 154815 1.
National Environmental Standards Regulation Agency (NESREA). NESREA, Federal Ministry of Environment, Abuja; 2007.
Ojekunle OZ, Adeyemi AA, Adewale MT, Saheed AG, Mujeeb BA. Assessment of physicochemical characteristics of groundwater within selected industrial areas in Ogun State, Nigeria. Environmental Pollutants and Bioavailability. 2020b;32(1):100–113.
Obiefuna GI, Orazulike DM. The hydrochemical characteristics and evolution of groundwater in semiarid Yola Area, Northeast, Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences. 2011;3(4):400-416.
Awalla COC. Environmental impact assessment of coal mining activity in Enugu Metropolis, Enugu State, Nigeria. Journal of Software Engineering and Simulation. 2014;2(5):01-15.
Imasuen OI, Omali AO, Ibrahim I. Assessment of environmental impacts and remedies for gully erosion in Ankpa Metropolis and environs, Kogi State, Nigeria. Advances in Applied Science Research. 2011;2(5):372-384.
Rao VS, Prasanthi S, Shanmukha KJV, Prasad KRS. Physicochemical analysis of water samples of Nujendla area in Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Int. J. Chem Tech Res. 2012;4(2):691-699.
World Health Organization. Total dissolved solids in Drinking-water: Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality; 1996.
Sawyer CN, McCarty PL. Chemistry for sanitary engineers. 2nd Ed., McGraw–Hill, New York. 1967;518.
Jain CK, Bandyopadhyay A, Bhadra A. Assessment of ground water quality for drinking purpose, District Nainital, Uttarakhand, India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2010;166(1-4):663-676.
Shittu OB, Olaitan JO, Amusa TS. Physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis of water used for drinking and swimming purposes in Abeokuta, Nigeria. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2008;11:285–290.
Okonko IO, Ogunjobi AA, Adejoye OD, Ogunnusi TA, Olasogba MC. Comparative studies and Microbial risk assessment of different water samples used for processing frozen sea-foods in Ijora-olopa, Lagos State, Nigeria. African journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7(16):2902-2907.
Ekere Nwachukwu R, Ihedioha Janefrances N, Eze Ifeanyi S, Agbazue Vitus E. Health risk assessment in relation to heavy metals in water sources in rural regions of South East Nigeria. Inter. J. Phys. Sci. 2014;9(6):109-116.
Alkassasbeh JY, Heng L, Salmijah S. Toxicity testing and the effect of landfill leachate in Malaysia on behavior of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758; Pisces, Cyprinidae). American Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2009;5(3):209-217.