Main Article Content
This study assessed kriging methods for mapping soil electrical conductivity (EC) in Southeastern, Coastal region of the Caspian Sea of Iran. The coordinates of the study area were Longitude=47.975896177 Latitude=36.995353646224 and Longitude=48.209973627223 Latitude=37.241702530966 which covered approximately 500 km2 of land area. The average maximum and minimum temperatures are 22.3 ºC and 13 ºC, respectively. Sampling points were selected from seven (7) rows each containing 20 points (where 4 points had been lost from the last row). The soils were sampled from 136 locations at 0-20 cm deep in order to measure soil EC. Soil EC maps showing unique management zones due to EC results were created using ordinary kriging, universal kriging, log-normal kriging and inverse distance weighting (IDW) using ArcGIS software version 10.4.1 GS+ v 5.1 and SPSS v 16. Results indicated that log-normal kriging was the most accurate method for predicting and mapping soil EC. All four statistical methods suggest that the lowest soil salinity occurred in the Southeastern region and the highest EC was recorded in the Northwestern of the study area. Furthermore, the lowest soil EC was observed in agricultural activities involved soil tillage and soil draining, which are far from the present shoreline.
AbdelRahman AAE, Metwaly MM, Shalaby A. Quantitative assessment of soil saline degradation using remote sensing indices in Siwa Oasis. Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environmen. 2019;13: 53-60.
Scudiero E, Todd H, Skaggs TH, Corwin DL. Comparative regional-scale soil salinity assessment with near-ground apparent electrical conductivity and remote sensing canopy reflectance. Ecological Indicators. 2016;70:276-284.
Cardon GE, Davis JG, Bauder TA, Waskom RM. Managing saline soils. Colorado State University Extension Fact Sheet N, 0.503; 2007.
Behera SK, Shukla AK. Spatial distribution of surface soil acidity, electrical conductivity, soil organic carbon content and exchangeable potassium, calcium and magnesium in some cropped acid soils of India. Land Degrad. Dev. 2015;26, 71–79.
Zare-mehrjardi M, Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi R, Akbarzadeh A. Evaluation of geostatistical techniques for mapping spatial distribution of soil PH, salinity and plant cover affected by environmental factors in Southern Iran. Not. Sci. Biol. 2010;2(4):92–103.
Robinson TP, Metternicht GM. Testing the performance of spatial interpolation techniques for mapping soil properties. Comput. Electron. Agric. 2006;50:97–108.
Adhikary PP, Chandrasekharan H, Chakraborty D, Kamble K. Assessment of groundwater pollution in West Delhi, India using geostatistical approach. Environ. Monitor. Assess. 2010;167:599-615.
Bilgili A, Çullu VMA, Aydemir S, Aydemir A, Almaca A. Probability mapping of saline and sodic soils in the Harran plain using a non-linear kriging technique. Eurasian J. Soil Sci. 2012;2:76- 81.
Kroonenberg SB, Abdurakhmanov GM, Badyukov EN, van der Borg K, Kalashnikov A, Kasimo NS, Rychagov GI, Svitoch AA, Vonhof HB, Wesselingh FP. Solarforced 2600 BP and Little Ice Age highstands of the Caspian Sea. Quaternary International. 2007;173-174:137-143.
Kakroodi AA, Kroonenberg SB, Hoogendoorn RM, Mohammd Khani H, Yamani M, Ghassemi MR, Lahijani HAK. Rapid Holocene sea-level changes along the Iranian Caspian coast. Quaternary International. 2012;263:93-103.
Torres MA. The petroleum geology of western Turkmenistan: the Gograndag-Okarem province. In: Yilmaz, P.O., Isaksen, G.H. (Eds.), Oil and Gas of the Greater Caspian Area. AAPG Studies in Geology. 2007;55:109-132.
Huseynov DA, Guliyev IS. Mud volcanic natural phenomena in the South Caspian Basin: geology, fluid dynamics and environmental impact. Environmental Geology. 2004;46:1012-1023.
Rhoades JD. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved salts. In: Sparks, D.L. (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. Soil Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI. 1996;417-435.
Bhunia GS, Kumar Shitb P, Chattopadhyay R. Assessment of spatial variability of soil properties using geostatistical approach of lateritic soil (West Bengal, India). Annals of Agrarian Science. 2018;16:436-443.
Corwin DL, Sorensen M, Rhoades JD. Using GIS to locate salinity on irrigated soils. 8th Conference on Computing in Civil Engineering in Conjunction with A/E/C system, June 7-9, USA; 1992.
Farifteh J, van der Meer F, van der Meijde M, Atzberger C. Spectral characteristics of salt-affected soils: A laboratory experiment. Geoderma. 2008;145:196-206.
Zaouchea M, Bela L, Vaudour E. Geostatistical mapping of topsoil organic carbon and uncertainty assessment in Western Paris croplands (France). Geoderma Regional. 2017;10:126-137.
Mesic Kis I. Comparison of Ordinary and Universal Kriging interpolation techniques on a depth variable (a case of linear spatial trend), case study of the Šandrovac Field. The Mining-Geology-Petroleum Engineering Bulletin UDC. 2016;528.9:912.
Isaaks EH, Serivastava RM. An introduction to applied geostatistics. Oxford University Press. 1989; 561. Journel AG. Nonparametric estimation of spatial distributions. Mathemat. Geol. 1983;15:445-468.
Juan P, Mateu J, Jordan MM, Mataix-Solera J, Meléndez-Pastor I, Navarro-Pedreño J. Geostatistical methods to identify and map spatial variations of soil salinity. J. Geochem. Explor. 2011;108:62-72.