Main Article Content



Understanding of diversity of plants along elevation gradient is vital for designing conservation strategy pertinent to identified species. The study was conducted in Godere Forest using systematic sampling method for vegetation and environmental data collected in 80 sample plots 40m X 40m stretched between 1994 -2220 m a.s.l. A total of 118 plant species were identified and categorized into 54 families and 107 genera. Three plant communities were identified using hierarchical agglomerative classification method along the elevation gradient: Dicrocephala chrysanthemifolia-Ochna holistii, Achanthus eminens-Allopylus macrobotrys and Galinieria saxifraga- Rungia grandis respectively. Results showed the species in communities exhibited higher Beta-diversity and evenness than within the plot size observation. The index for Beta-diversity in the communities increased with elevation gradient while it showed decreasing trend for species richness. Elevation was found the most constraining environmental factor for species diversity at community level which is linear and inversely correlated; while as phosphorous and organic matter were in sample plots. The dominance of herbaceous species have impact on biodiversity of tree and shrubs in Godere forest with an  implication for  in-situ conservation of tree species with high important value index for increasing their ecological significance by reducing the impact of human interference.

Biodiversity, Insitu, Elevation, Floristic composition, Godere Forest, Species

Article Details

How to Cite
TAMIRAT, T., & LULEKAL, E. (2021). DIVERSITY OF PLANT SPECIES IN GODERE FOREST, SOUTH-WESTERN ETHIOPIA: IMPLICATION FOR IN-SITU CONSERVATION. Journal of Global Ecology and Environment, 12(3), 1-13. Retrieved from https://www.ikprress.org/index.php/JOGEE/article/view/6858
Original Research Article


WWF. Living Planet Report - 2018: Aiming Higher. Grooten, M. and Almond, R.E.A.(eds). WWF, Gland, Switzerland; 2018.

Lindenmayer D, Hunter M. Some guiding concepts for conservation biology, Conservation Biology. 2010;24(6):1459–1468.

Lindsey R. Climate change: Atmospheric carbondioxide. Climate. Gov; 2018.

Decaens T, Martins M, Feijoo A, Oszwald J, Dolédec S. Biodiversity loss along a gradient of deforestation in Amazonian agricultural landscapes. Conservation Biology, Wiley. 2018;32(6):1380-1391.
Available:ff10.1111/cobi.13206ff. ffhal-01922346f

Franc¸oso RD, Haidar RF, Machado RB. Tree species of South America central savanna: Endemism, marginal areas and the relationship with other biomes, Acta Botanica Brasilica. 2016;30(1):78–86.

Lohmann LG, Bell CD, Cali´o MF, Winkworth RC. Pattern and timing of biogeographical history in the Neotropicaltribe Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae), Botanical Journal of theLinnean Society. 2013;171(1):154–170.

Weyhenmeyer Gesa A, Jens Hartmann B, Dag O Hessen , Jiří Kopáček, Josef Hejzlar, Stéphan Jacquet, et al. Widespread diminishing anthropogenic effects on calcium infresh waters Scientific Reports. 2019;9:10450.

Phalan BM, Bertzky S, Butchart HM. Crop expansion and conservation priorities in tropical countries, PLoS ONE. 2013;8(1):Article ID e51759.

Martinelli G, Morais MA. Livro Vermelho da Flora doBrasil, Instituto de Pesquisas do Jardim Botˆanico do Rio deJaneiro; 2013.

Šímová I, Storch D. The enigma of terrestrial primary productivity: Measurements, models, scales and the diversity–productivity relationship. Ecography. 2017;40:239–252.

Lira PK, Tambosi LR, Ewers RM, Metzger JP. Landuseand land-cover change in Atlantic Forest landscapes, Forest Ecology and Management. 2012;278:80–89.

Oliveira EA, Marimon BS, Feldpausch TR. Diversity, abundance and distribution of lianas of the Cerrado Amazonian forest transition, Plant Ecology Diversity. 2017;7(1-2):231–240.

Jorge LAB, Millani TM, Fonseca RCB, Arruda AA. Diameter structure and spatial arrangement of themost abundant species in a seasonal semideciduous forest fragment in Botucatu, Southeastern Brazil, Floresta e Ambiente. 2015;22(3):355–367.

Martinelli G, Messina T, Salis TML. Filho, Livro vermelhoda flora do Brasil - Plantas raras do Cerrado, Riode Janeiro: Andrea Jakobsson: Instituto de Pesquisas JardimBotˆanico do Rio de Janeiro: CNCFlora, 1st edition. 2014;1.

Soares NS, Gonc¸alves CA, Ara´ujo GM, Lomˆonaco C. Floristic composition and abundance in forest fragments: Acase study fromSouthern Goi´as, Brazil, Bioscience Journal. 2011;31(4):1238–1252.

Andersen P, Watson D. Food policy for developing countries. The role of government in global, national and local food systems. Cornell University Press, Ithaca. 2010;390.

Pereira G, Jerˆonimo K, Fonseca, Coneglian A. Floristicand phytosociological study of gallery forest in Cerrado, Revista Agrotecnologia – Agrotec. 2015;6(2):1–19.

Tsegaye Dereje, Moe SR, Vedeld PO, Aynekulu E. Land-use/cover dynamics in arid and semi-aridrangelands of northern Afar, Ethiopia. AgricEcosyst Environnt; 2010.

Eyayu Molla, Heluf Gebrekidan Tekalign Mamo, Mohammed Hassen. Patterns of Land use/cover dynamics in the Mountain Landscape of Tara Gedem and Adjacent Agro-Ecosystem, Northwest Ethiopia. Ethiop. J. Sci. 2014; 33(2):75–88.

Ensermu Kelbessa, Sebsebe Demissew. Diversity of vascular plant taxa of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sceinces. 2014;3(15).

MoA. Ethiopian Forestry Action Program. Volume II. The challenge for Development and volume III issues and Actions. Ministry of Agriculture, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 1994.

MoA. Ethiopian Forestry Action Program. Volume III. The challenge for Development and volume III issues and Actions. Ministry of Agriculture, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2002.

Dereje Denu. Floristic composition and ecological study of Bibita forest (Gura-ferda) southwester vegetation, Msc Dissertation, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia; 2010.

Van der, Maarel. Transformation of cover abundance values in phytosociology and its effect on Community. Vegetatio. 1979;39:47-114.

Van Reeuwijk LA, Black A. Procedures for soil analysis. 3rdedition. International soil reference and information centre (ISRIC).The Netherlands. 1992;360.

Walkley A, Black LA. Examination of the method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science. 1934;34:29-38.

Bremmer JM, Mulvaney CS. Total nitrogen. In: Methods of soil analysis II. Chemical and microbiological properties. A.L R.H. Miller and D.R. Keeney (Ed). American Society of Agronomy. Madison. Wisconsin. Monograph No. 9 (2nd Ed). 1982;595-624.

Olsen SR, Cole CV, Wantaanaba FS, Dean LA. Estimation of available phosphorus in soils by extracting with sodium bicarbonate. USDA. Circular 939, US government printing office, Washington, D.C. 1954;345.

Jayne TS, Yamano T, Weber MT, Tschirley D, Zulu B. Smallholder Income and Land Distribution in Africa: Implications for poverty reduction strategies. Food Policy. 2000,2003; 28:253–275.

Mueller-Dombois D, Ellenberg H. Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 1974;531.

Ayalew Sebsibe Tegene, Feleke Woldeyes Gamo, Simon Shibru Cheche. Woody Vegetation Composition, Structure, and Community Types of Doshke Forest in Chencha, Gamo Gofa Zone, Ethiopia. International Journal of Biodiversity; 2018.


Zhang W, Huang D, Wang R, Liu J, Du N. Altitudinal Patterns of Species Diversity and Phylogenetic Diversity across Temperate Mountain Forests of Northern China. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(7):e0159995.

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159995

Sperling D, Yeh S. Low Carbon Fuel Standards. Issues in Science and Technology Winter. 2009;20:57-66.

Ribeiro MC, Metzger JP, Martensen AC, Ponzoni FJ, Hirota MM. The Brazilian Atlantic forest: how much is left, and how is the remaining forest distributed? Implications for conservation,” Biological Conservation. 2009;142(6):1141–1153.

Tabarelli M, Peres CA, Melo FPL. Few winnersand many losers paradigm revisited: emerging prospects fortropical forest biodiversity, Biological Conservation. 2013; 155:136–140.

Doug B, Pipa E, Katherine L, May-Tobin M, Roquemore S, Saxon E. The Root of the Problem, UCS Publications, Cambridge, UK; 2011.

Alvares CA, Stape JL, Sentelhas PC, Moraes Gonc JL, De alves HG, Sparovek G. K¨oppen’s climate classification map for Brazil, Meteorologische Zeitschrift. 2013; 22(6):711–728.

Haidar RF, Fagg JJ, Pinto MR. Florestas estacionaise ´areas de ec´otono no estado do Tocantins, Brasil:parˆametros estruturais, classificac¸˜ao das fitofisionomias florestaise subs´ıdios para conservac¸˜ao, Acta Amazonica. 2013;43(3):261–290.

Gogoi A, Sahoo UK. Impact of anthropogenic disturbance on species diversity and vegetation structure of a lowland tropical rainforest of eastern Himalaya, India Journal of Mountain Science. 2018;15:2453.


Varun Attri, Sharma DP, Rajeev Dhiman G. Floristic Diversity and Natural Regeneration Status of Chir pine (Pinus roxburghii Sargent) Forest: A case study of Rajgarh Forest Division of Himachal Pradesh. Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci. 2017;6(9):01-06

Gonzalez BLP, Gomes EPC, Burnham RJ, Neto SR. Diversity and abundance of climbers from the Atlantic Forest,Southeastern Brazil, Biodiversity and Conservation. 2012;22(11):2505–2517.

Gillespie TW, Lipkin B, Sullivan L, Benowitz DR, Pau S, Keppel G. The rarest and least protected forests in biodiversity hotspots, Biodiversity and Conservation. 2012;21(14):3597–3611.

Colwell RK, Chao A, Gotelli NJ. Models and estimators linking individual-based and sample-based rarefaction, extrapolation and comparison of assemblages, Journal of Plant Ecology. 2012;5(1):3–21.