Original Research Article

METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SOLID DOSAGE FORM OF RIVAROXABAN BY RP-HPLC

JAVAID AHMAD KHAN, SHEIKH ABDUL KHALIQ, SADAF NAEEM, MUHAMMAD KASHIF

Journal of International Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Page 4-10

The main objective of current study was to establish simple, sensitive, high-speed and precise RP-HPLC technique for the estimation of Solid Dosage form of Rivaroxaban as per ICH guidelines. Prospective experimental study conducted in the laboratories of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University from January to September 2019. Study was carried out using LC Solution technology on Shimadzu HPLC LC-20. The separation was done by using Thermo Scientific Hypersil ODS 5 μ C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm) as a stationary phase. The mobile phase was prepared utilizing Buffer & Acetonitrile in the ratio of 700:300 (v/v) run at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/minute. The peak elution was observed at 6.177 mins at wavelength 250 nm when 10.0 mL was injected. The technique showed linear behavior in the range of 0.5% (0.101 mcg/ml) to 120% (24.139 mcg/ml) of test concentration with linear standard curve and correlation coefficient was found to be R2=0.999, peak symmetry for Rivaroxaban was excellent & the Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantification were found to be as  0.004 mcg/mL & 0.006 mcg/mL respectively. Current method was established and validated according to the ICH guidelines and all parameters were adjusted according to the US FDA designed Method Guidelines.

Original Research Article

EVALUATION ABOUT INFLUENCE OF INTRAVENOUS CONTRAST ON DOSE DISTRIBUTION AND MONITOR UNIT USING CT IN TREATMENT PLANNING FOR LUNG AND CERVICAL CANCERS

AI THU THI NGUYEN, BROOKE BROUSSARD

Journal of International Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Page 11-18

Purpose/Object: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference in dose and the monitor units (MUs) between the two plan groups on two CT images with contrast and non-contrast. Then, it is proposed to use CT images with intravenous contrast as the basic sequence of images to plan cancer treatment for patients.

Materials/Methods: A total of 20 contrasted and non-contrasted patients with lung and cervical cancers were included. Prowess 5.1 software was used to do the treatment planning.

Results: There was no significant difference in dose distribution and monitor unit of both intravenous and non-intravenous contrast had the mean difference in the dose of 1.17% and on MU was 1.42% with plan groups of lung cancer and 0.45% and 0.32% with plan groups of cervical cancer. Some cases had big differences; for example, the difference was 4.14% of the volume of PTV received maximum dose. The main cause of this discrepancy was that the patients were unable to control their breathing, resulting in their bodies moving differently during CT before and after contrast injection.

Conclusions: The use of contrast agents doesn’t significantly influence dose and monitor unit at some cases of lung and cervical cancer but it can influence dose accuracy for other cancer sites such as head and neck, prostate or rectum.

Original Research Article

THE TREATMENT PLANNING OF 3D-CONFORMAL TECHNIQUE WITH IRRADIATION OF PHOTON BEAMS FOR HEAD AND NECK CANCER PATIENTS

AITHU THI NGUYEN, BROOKE BROUSSARD

Journal of International Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Page 19-30

Background: Three- dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) technique was used with 3 irradiation fields of photon beam for head and neck cancer patients.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of treatment technique on the planning target volume (PTV) laryngeal cancer, dose of organ at risk (OAR) (parotid glands).

Methods: Used prowess Panther 5.1 software to do the treatment planning for head and neck cancer patients. 3D-CRT technique with 3 irradiation fields of photon beam was used to produce the maximum dose of target volume coverage and minimum dose to the parotid glands. A photon beam of 6 MV was used for all measurements.

Results: The 3 irradiation fields of photon beam plan showed the good coverage of the PTV and minimized the dose to the OARs. However, 3D - CRT still has some limitations. For cases of tumors with complex shapes or located near healthy organs in need of protection, the 3D - CRT is difficult to offer an optimal dose distribution.

Original Research Article

INVESTIGATING THE GAIT PATTERNS IN FALLING-DOWN PREDICTION FOR THE ELDERLY USING MACHINE LEARNING

BRENDA KIM, INSEO ANGELA CHOI, RYAN PARK, JONGBIN LEE, TAEHYUK KIM

Journal of International Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Page 31-43

Many falls usually lead to chronic complications for the elderly. Four common causes of falls include slippery floors, the level of brightness, stairs, and residential obstacles such as a rug. These are linked to household activities, and therefore, the fatal falls often occur when an elderly person stays home alone, a timely contact to the doctor is not possible.

Objective: The study aimed to apply a dynamic functionality embedded in a microcontroller to detect true falls and activate alarms, promptly.

Methods: The accelerometer embedded in Arduino NANO 33 IoT measured the 3-axis acceleration in the gait cycle. The 3-axis acceleration characterized the dominant frequency and mean peak. These two characteristics could distinguish between real falls and fake falls. Actual falls were defined as the ability to continue moving after a fall. Acceleration data was then analyzed using the double integration to find the foot clearance in the four most common causes of falls.

Results: The study demonstrated that foot clearance was decreased in the four situations and that Arduino NANO 33 IoT could accurately distinguish between real falls and fake falls, proving the device's ability to detect falls that constitute an emergency.

Conclusions: The potential for the Arduino Nano 33 IoT was confirmed to detect falls in senior citizens through this study. The Arduino Nano could distinguish between real falling and fake falling, regardless of whether it is walking or running before the fall.

Short Communications

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE TO COMPARE TREATMENT OPTIONS OF POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME

DARAKHSHAN MASROOR, SHEIKH ABDUL KHALIQ, IQBAL AZHAR, SYED MUZZAMMIL AHMAD

Journal of International Research in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 15, Issue 1, Page 1-3

Globally, it is an emerging trend to use complementary and alternative medications for treating illnesses and for betterment of general well-being. In past few years, the polycystic ovarian syndrome has been managed by multiple treatment options. There was a need to identify a reliable and satisfactory treatment for PCOS patients. For this reason, a Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) study is conducted to compare two or more different health care systems in the management of polycystic ovarian syndrome.  At present, there is no comprehensive research model to explore the efficacy of different treatment systems for such female reproductive disorder. Accordingly, the aim of present study was to design an explanatory model that might account for this phenomenon. Hence, a 40-items questionnaire was developed in which conventional and alternative therapies were compared in terms of patient’s satisfaction to calculate the ultimate outcomes of all therapies. Therefore, aim of this pilot study was to confirm the reliability and validity of designed questionnaire. The respondent’s data was subjected to specific validation process; reliability and internal consistency using Cronbach’s alpha correlation coefficient. Reliability statistics was found in acceptable range with Cronbach’s Alpha score of 0.707, which proves that questionnaire has internal consistency and is valid and reliable for research. So it has been concluded that questionnaire is valid and reliable to use for comparative evaluation of PCOS in different treatment systems.