Background: The present study deals with the formulation of floating bilayer tablet of Metformin HCl, a biguanide class of antidiabetic.
Materials and Methods: The gas releasing component, necessary for the tablet to float, is put in the food grade rice bran wax matrix and the delayed release component HPMC was put in a separate layer of the bi-layer matrix tablet. The tablet blends were evaluated for their properties like Carr’s Index and Hausner’s ratio and compressed into a bilayer tablet. The tablets were evaluated for their properties like physical properties, drug content, buoyancy lag time, buoyancy time, dissolution rate and kinetics of drug dissolution.
Results and Discussion: The blends showed good flow properties (Carr’s Index in range 11-26, Hausner’s ratio 1.12-1.35). The tablets had good crushing strength (Friability below 1%) and good physical properties. The gas released made the tablet buoyant with the buoyancy lag times (BLT) decreased with increase in the rice bran wax amount of the layer (BLT in range of 30 sec decreased to about 7 sec). This layer erodes slowly as the tablet floats with effervescence and the wax layer being less dense keeps the tablet buoyant for almost 6 hrs. The drug release from the HPMC matrix is delayed for nearly 10 hrs. The drug release kinetic studies suggested a first order mechanism with case two transport being the mechanism of drug release.
Conclusion: It can be concluded from the literature that the concentration in which HPMC is utilized in the delayed release layer can be mucoadhesive. Thus the bilayer tablet shall remain intact in the upper GIT, where the drug has preferential absorption site. This shall improve the bioavailability of the drug.
Pharmacology, is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, it is progressing by leaps and bounds, but medical students in southern Libya decry the way it is taught, its examinations, and the discipline’s usefulness to their practice. The aim of this study, conducted on 90 third-year Medicinae Baccalaureus (MBBS) students, was to assess the students’ attitudes toward, perceptions of and feedback surrounding pharmacology teaching. The study was administered through a pre-validatedquestionnaire containing questions based on the internationally accepted "Likert Scale". Our analysis was based on the median score and percentage distribution of the various parameters used in the questionnaire. The survey was conducted in May 2015.
The study revealed students favored many changes in pharmacology, including the trend of teaching pharmacology to third year students (72.2%), instruction on how to choose drugs rationally in future practice (86.6%), distribution of handouts before lectures (67.5%), clinical pharmacology (23.3%), teaching certain topics during pre-final or final year (61.1.0%), and a combination of multiple choice questions (MCQs) and written and oral rating evaluation methods for examination (65.5. %).Students were not in favour of change in pharmacology like learning pharmacology simultaneously with clinical conditions to correlate the drugs with the disease. In contrast, students were in favour of many changes in pharmacology, like choosing drugs rationally in them future practice, pharmacology should be integrated horizontally with other paraclinical subjects, emphasis on problem solving exercises rather than on didactic (teaching) lectures, preferring distribution of handouts before the lectures, teaching some topics during prefinal or final year to achieve the said objectives , preferring incorporation of clinically oriented lectures, and incorporation of combination MCQs, written and oral methods for examination. This study provides insight into students' perceptions regarding pharmacology teaching and its outcomes, and so would be helpful in modifying undergraduate pharmacology teaching patterns.
Background: Clustering of admission of patients of catatonia in time prompted us to analyse seasonal trend in the occurrence of cases of Catatonia.
Methodology: A time series of monthly number of admissions with diagnosis of catatonia was constructed for the admissions from March 2010 to March 2016. Seasonal decomposition using Additive Model with equal weights for all points and length of seasonal period as 12 was carried out to find the magnitude of seasonal factor.
Results: 31 patients of catatonia were admitted in the child ward in the last 6 years. It was seen that a low seasonal factor was seen in the months of November to January and also the month of April had low seasonal factor of - .430. These periods indicate a low risk season.
Conclusion: There appears to be a clear seasonal pattern in the occurrence of cases of Catatonia with hardly any cases in the months of November to January and no cases in the month of April. This corresponds with seasonal variation seen with seasonal allergy which needs to be studied further with a scope for potential therapeutic improvements for catatonia.
The association between human papilloma virus and cervical cancer has been clearly established and is a vaccine preventable disease. Cervical cancer, in India is the second most common cancer in women aged 15-44 years and accounts for 67,477 deaths annually. The article provides a comprehensive review of cervical cancer in India and recommendations for a vaccination strategy.
Cochlear implant (CI) is considered to be the most successful neural prosthesis till date which works by integrating an electronic device to the central nervous system thereby restoring the lost special sense of hearing. In situations where the cochlea or cochlear nerve is aplastic and when cochlea is fully ossified, there is an option of auditory brainstem implantation (ABI). This has shown reasonable success by stimulating the cochlear nucleus to restore auditory perception. The auditory midbrain implant (AMI) is a recent experimental auditory prosthesis designed for stimulating the inferior colliculus of the midbrain in individuals who cannot benefit from CI and ABI. Candidates with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) who develop neural deafness due to distortion of brainstem because of growth and/or surgical removal of bilateral acoustic neuromas are most suitable for AMI, since this stimulates the auditory midbrain proximal to the damaged cochlear nucleus thereby providing auditory spectral cues to the central auditory cortex. There is sparse literature on AMI and very few centers have experience with this type of Implant. The focus of this work is to review the literature regarding the development and translation of this new type of central auditory prosthesis and derive a rational conclusion based on the cumulative evidence for defining its current status and its future implications on clinical practice.