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The chemicals that an individual regularly craves are described as habitual. Alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine are some of the most popular habitual substances globally, and these substances are being consumed at an increasing rate in younger ages. In Europe and North America, up to 90% of the adult population drinks coffee daily, and, although less prevalent, other drugs are also used simultaneously in combination. Moreover, 37.3 percent of high school seniors reported that they were smoking. Many documented health issues for each of these chemicals have been identified regarding decreased brain function and even permanent brain damage. Moreover, these chemicals are often utilized concurrently, which may lead to different responses by the brain. The study aimed to examine the synergistic effects on action potential parameters acquired from the nerve cord of Lumbricus terrestris by injecting mixed solutions of alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine.
The controlled amounts of alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine solutions were administered into the ventral nerve cord of L. terrestris under anesthesia, and the action potentials were induced with electric stimulation and their derived parameters of action potential such as latent period, wave width, peak point, and trough point were evaluated. The data demonstrated the reliability of the model's parameters by consistent change of regression slopes from action potentials. The observable trends in the mean latent period, peak point, trough point, and action potential length for greater effects were proven to be synergistic when the combination of the three drugs was administered.
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