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Diabetes, a major metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycaemia and plagued by numerous side effects including amnesia has posed a huge burden on the sufferers for ages. This remains to be unraveled as adequate treatment has been largely unavailable. This study therefore evaluated the effect of Jatropha tanjorensis leaf extract on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glucose level. A total of 63 rats were used for the study. The rats after acclimatization were grouped into seven (7) comprising nine (9) rats in each group. Control 1 served as negative control, control 2 served as diabetic positive control while Test group 1 served as diabetic group treated with 0.0128 mg/kg b.w of Glibenclamide drug. Four diabetic groups labelled test group 2,3,4 and 5 were treated with varying doses of 50 mg/kg b.w, 100mg/kg b.w, 150 mg/kg b.w and 200 mg/kg b.w of the plant leaf extract respectively for 1 week, 3 weeks and 5 weeks. BDNF was estimated using rat Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kits. Blood glucose was estimated using glucose oxidase method. Amnesia study was done using passive avoidance test. Data obtained were analyzed using Fischer’s least significance test. Results showed a dose dependent increase (p<0.05) in BDNF in diabetic treated rats in week 5. Blood glucose level decreased significantly (p< 0.05) as dose of extract increased across the diabetic groups. Histopathological slide of the brain showed up-regulatory activity of the plant leaf extract thus indicating that the plant leaf extract Jatropha tanjorensis can be used to ameliorate diabetic induced cognitive dysfunction.