Main Article Content
Field study was conducted in 2016 and 2017 to investigate the potency of animal manures on phytonematodes infecting yam species (Dioscorea rotundata and D. alata). Nematode infested fields were prepared into plots of 2 m. Dried cow, poultry and swine manure were incorporated into each plot at the rate of 5 tons / hectare and 10 tons / ha immediately after land preparation while seed yam of 100-150 gm were planted into each heap two weeks later. There were fourteen treatments including control replicated four times in a 2 x 7 factorial experiments fitted into a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Data collected include; nematode populations, weight of yam at harvest, total nitrogen, available phosphorous (P), exchangeable potassium (K) and soil pH. The results of the study revealed that the incorporation of dried and decomposed poultry, cow and swine manure both at lower and higher rates (5 tons / ha and 10 tons / ha) each reduced populations of the plant-parasitic nematodes and increased the yields of the two yam species. The results of this study therefore revealed that application of the amendments in a field infested with nematodes has the potentials for managing nematode population and nematode damage on D. rotundata and D. alata.
Baimey H, Coyne D, Labuschagne N. Pathogenicity of Scutellonema bradys populations from different geographical areas in Benin on yam (Dioscorea spp.) J Crop Prot. 2009;28(9):715-721.
Ravichandra NG. Methods and techniques in plant nematology. New Delhi: PHI Learning Private Limited; 2010.
Udo IA, Uguru MI, Ugbuji RO, Ugwuoke DA. Source of tolerance to root-knit nematode. Meloidogyne javanica, in cultivated and wild Tomato species. Plant Pathol J, 2008;7: 40-44.
Berry SD, Fargette M, Spaull VM, Morand S, Cadet P. Detection and quantification of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica), lesion nematode (Pratylenchus zeae) and dagger nematode (Xiphinema spp.) parasites of sugarcane using real-time PCR. Molec and Cellul Prob. 2008;22:168-76.
Osunlola OS, Fawole B. Evaluation of animal dungs and organic mineral fertilizer for the control of Meloidogyne incognita on sweet potato. Int J Agron. 2015;72:5363.
Karmani BK, Jiskani MM, Khaskheli MI, Wagan KH. Influence of organic amendments on population and reproduction of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in egg plants. Pak J Agr and Vet Sci. 2011;27:150-159.
Noling JW. Nematode management in sweet potato (including Boniatos). University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS Extension). 2002;15: l 4: 173-176.
Opong-Sekyere D, Akromah R, Nyamah EY, Brenya E, Yeboah S. Characterization of okra (Abelmoschus spp L.) germplasm based on morphological characters in Ghana. African J Plant Breeding and Crop Sci. 2011;3(13):367-378.
Ploeg A. When nematodes attack is important. California Grower. 2001;12-13.
Babaleye T. West Africa: Improving yam production technology. ANB-BIA. 2003; 463:56-59.
Adegbite AA, Agbaje GO. Efficacy of carbofuran in control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) race 2 in hybrid yam varieties in southwestern Nigeria. Electronic J Env Agr and Food Chem. 2007;6:2083-2094.
Nwauzor EC, Fawole B. Root-knot nematodes on yams in eastern Nigeria. Proceedings of the 3rd Research planning Conference on root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp. Regine IV and V Ibadan Nigeria. 1981;16:1-167.
Rivera L, Aballay E. Nematicide Effect of Various Organic Soil Amendments on Meloidogyne incognita Chilean J Agri Resource. 2008;68:290-296.
Adekunle OK. Amendment of soil with African marigold and sun hemp for management of Meloidgyne incognita in selected legumes. Crop Prot. 2011;30:1392-1395.
Shawky S, El-shennawy RZ, Shady AM. Biological control of Meloidogyne javanica on tomato plants with isolated bio agent in Egypt. J Agr Sci. 2006;37:6049-6063.
Azhagumurugan C, Ranjan MK, Pavaraj M. Effect of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on the growth characteristic of Horse Gram, Macrotyloma uniflorum treated with fruit extract of Aegle marmelos. World J of Zool. 2014;9(3):162-165.
Idorenyin AU, Ugwuoke KI. Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita Race 1 on Tumeric as Influenced by Inoculum Density and Poultry Manure Amendment. Plant. Pathol. J. 2010;l9:162-168.
Khan Z, Kim SG, Jeon YH, Khan, HU, Son SH, Kim YH. A plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Paenibacillus polymyxa strain GBR-I, suppresses root-knot nematodes extracts on nematode, Bioresour Technol. 2008;99:3016-3023.
Whitehead AG, Hemming JR. A comparison of some quantitative methods extracting small vermiform nematodes from soil. Ann Appl Biol. 1965;55:25-38.
Bell M. Plant Parasitic Nematodes: Lucid key to 30 Genera of Plant Parasitic Nematodes; 2004. Available:http://www.lucidcentral.com/keys/nematodes
Knudsen D, Peterson GA, Pratt PF. Lithium, sodium and potassium. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 2: Chemical and microbial properties, Page, A.I., R.H. Miller and D.R. Keeney (Eds.). ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI, USA. 1982;225-246.
Kimenju JW, Muiru DM, Karanja NK, Nyongesa WM, Miano DW, Mutua GK. Assessing the role of organic soil amendments in management of root-knot nematodes on common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. J Trop Microbiol. 2004;3:14-23.
Amulu LU, Adekunle OK. Comparative effects of poultry-manure, cow dung and carbofuran on Meloidogyne incognita infected okra. J Agr Sci and Tech. 2015;17:495-504.
Nwaguma EI, Fawole B. Efficacy of organic amendments on the population of Meloidogyne incognita on okra in South-Western Nigeria. Nigeria J Hort Sci. 2004;9:89-95.
Tanimola AA. Comparison of the effects of carbofuran and poultry manure in the management of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in the growth and yield of root-knot infected cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. L. walps). J Agr and Social Res. 2008;8:1.
Agbaje GO, Ogunsumi LO, Oluokun JA, Akilosutu TA. Survey of yam production system and impact of government policies in south-western Nigeria. Journal Food Agri and Env. 2005;2:22-229.
Coyne DL, Tchabi A Baimey H, Labushagne N, Rotifa I. Distribution and prevalence of nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Meloidogyne spp.) on marketed yam (Dioscorea spp.) in West Africa. Field Crops Res. 2006;96:142-150.
Daramola FY, Afolami SO, Idowu AA, Odeyemi IS. Effects of poultry manure and carbofuran soil amendments on soil nematode population and yield of pineapple. Intl J Agr Sci. 2012;3:298-307.
Kankam F, Suen FA, Adomako J. Nematicidal effects of sun hemp Crotolaria Juncea leaf residues on Meloidogyne incognita attacking tomato Solanum Lycopersicum roots. J Crop Prot. 2015;4:241-246.
Oka Y, Yermiyahu U. Suppressive effects of composts against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica on tomato. Nematol. 2002;4:891-898.
Castillo MB. Some studies on the use of organic soil amendments for nematode control. Philippine Agr Sci. 1985;68:76-93.
SAS Institute. SAS / Stat User Guide: Version 6, 12, 4th edition. SAS Institute, Cary, NC; 2002.
Tibugari H, Mombeshora D, Mandumbu R, Karavina C, Parwada C. A comparison of the effectiveness of the aqueous extracts of garlic, castor beans and marigold in the bicontrol of the root-knot nematodes in tomato. J Agr Technol. 2012;8(2):479-492.
Maerere AP, Kimbi GG, Nonga DC. Comparative effectiveness of animal manure on soil chemical properties, yield and root growth of Amaranthus (Amaranthus cruentus L). AJST. 2001;4.
Ogundele RA, Oyedele DJ, Adekunle OK. Management of Meloidogyne incognita and other phytonematodes infecting Amaranthus cruentus and Telfaria occidentalis with African marigold (Tagetes erecta) and Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata). Australasian Plant Pathology. 2016;45:537-545.