EFFECTS OF CASSAVA MILL EFFLUENT ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL GROWTH OF MAIZE PLANTS

Main Article Content

J. I. EZEOGO
N. E. NWAKOBY
M. U. ORJI
C. F. EJIMOFOR

Abstract

The wastes from cassava processing mills are usually discharged uncontrollably into the environment where they cause serious environmental challenges. This research work was undertaken to investigate the effects of the cassava mill effluent on the physicochemical effects and also to determine the effects of the polluted soil on the growth of maize plants. Fresh cassava mill effluent and unpolluted soil samples were collected and analyzed physicochemically. The soil sample was polluted with the cassava mill effluent and the polluted soil was also subjected to physicochemical analysis after 31days. Germination and growth of maize plants were also investigated using soil samples polluted with different concentrations of the cassava mill effluent. The results of the physicochemical analysis showed that the effluent was acidic (pH 3.95). It has total titrable acid value of 139mg/l, total dissolved solid value of 654.86mg/l, nitrate and cyanide contents of 89.65mg/l and 32.78mg/kg respectively. The concentration profile of metals was in the order Ca>K>Mg>Na>P>Zn>Pb>Fe>Cu>Mn. The results of the analyses of the unpolluted soil and the effluent polluted soil samples showed that the effluent had noticeable effects on the physicochemical properties of the soil. The effluent increased the acidity of the soil from pH 6.85 to pH 4.25. Statistical analysis of the results obtained from the physicochemical analysis of the polluted and unpolluted soil showed that there is a significant difference in the physicochemical characteristics of the unpolluted and polluted soil samples. The polluted soil also, at higher concentrations of the effluent  inhibited the germination of plant. Irrigation of healthy growing plants with 100% concentration of the effluent resulted to the withering of the plants after few days. Elemental analysis of the healthy and withered plants showed a remarkable increase in the concentrations of metals in the withered plants. The effect of the effluent on the growth of plants was due to the presence of cyanide which makes the effluent acidic. This acidity affects the germination and growth of plants. This research work revealed the fact that the effluents from cassava processing mills have significant effects on the physicochemical properties of the surrounding soils and also affected the growth of plants on these soils negatively. It therefore suggested that this effluent should be treated properly before disposal to the environment.

Keywords:
Casssava mil, effluent, physiochemical, maize plants

Article Details

How to Cite
EZEOGO, J. I., NWAKOBY, N. E., ORJI, M. U., & EJIMOFOR, C. F. (2021). EFFECTS OF CASSAVA MILL EFFLUENT ON THE PHYSICOCHEMICAL GROWTH OF MAIZE PLANTS. Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, 6(1), 111-122. Retrieved from https://www.ikprress.org/index.php/AJOPSS/article/view/7014
Section
Original Research Article

References

Adekanye TA, Ogunjimi SI, Ajala AO. An assessment of cassava processing plants in Irepodun Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria. World Journal of Agricultural Research. 2013;1:14-17.

Kobawila SC, Louembe D, Keleke S, Hounhouigan J, Gambe C. Reduction of the Cyanide Content during fermentation of cassava roots and leaves to produce bikedi and ntobambodi; two food products from Congo. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4:689– 696.

Oboh G. Nutrient enrichment of cassava peels using a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus spp solid media fermentation techniques. Electrical Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;9: 71–78.

Cardoso E, Cardoso DC, Cristiano PM, Luciano S, Back AJ. Use of Manihot esculenta Crantz processing residues as biofilter in Corn Crops. Research Journal of Agriculture. 2009; 3:1–8.

Horsfall M, Abia AA, Spiff AI. Kinetic studies on the absorption of cadmium, coppers, and zinc ions from aqueous solutions by cassava tuber bark waste. Bioresource Technology. 2006;97:283–291.

Oboh G, Akindahunsi AA, Oshodi AA. Nutrient and antinutrient contents of Aspergillus niger fermented cassava products (flour and garri). Journal of Food Comparative Analysis. 2002;15:617- 622.

Atulegwu PU, Egwuonwu N. Quality Assessment of the Mill Effluent Polluted Eutric-tropoflurent soil. Research Journal of Environmental Science. 2011;5:342–353.

Obueh HO, Odesiri-Eruteyan E. A study on the effects of cassava processing waste on the soil Enrichment of a Local Cassava Mill. Journal of Pollution Effects and Control. 2016;4:177– 186.

Ogboghodo IA, Oluwafemi AP, Ekeh SM. Effect of polluting soil with cassava mill effluent on the Bacteria and Fungi populations of a soil cultivated with maize. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2006;116(1–3): 419–425.

Olorunfemi D, Obiaigwe H, Okieimen E. Effects of Cassava Processing Effluent on the Germination of some cereals. Research Journal of Evironmental Sciences. 2007;1(4): 166–176.

AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. (18th edn.). Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Washington, DC, USA; 2010.

Onwuka GI. Food Analysis and Instrumentation: Theory and Practice. Nephthali Prints, Lagos. 2005;133–137.

AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. (17th edn.). Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Washington, DC, USA; 2000.

Dike AO. Statistics: Theory and Applications. Rhyce Kerex Publishers, Enugu. 2014;346– 350, 436.

Arotupin DJ. Evaluation of Micro-organisms from cassava waste water for production of amylase and cellulase. Research Journal of Microbiology. 2007;2(5):475–480.

Uzochukwu SVA, Oyede R, Atanda O. Utilization of Garri Industry Effluent in the preparation of a Gin. Nigerian Journal of Microbiology. 2001;15:87–92.

Eze VC, Onyilide DM. Microbiological and Physiochemical Characteristics of soil receiving Cassava Effluents in Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2015;3(1):20–24.

Okechi RN, Ihejirika CE, Chiegboka EI, Chukwura IJ. Evaluation of the effects of Cassava Mill Effluents on the Microbial Populations and Physicochemical Parameters at different Soil depths. International Journal of Bioscience. 2012;2(12):139–145.

Izonfuo WAL, Bariweni PA, George DMC. Soil Contamination from cassava waste water discharges in a rural community in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 2013;17(1):105– 110.

Aiyegoro OA, Akinpelu DA, Igbinosa EO, Ogunmwonyi HI. Effect of Cassava on the Microbial Population Dynamic and Physicochemical Characteristics on Soil Community. Science Focus. 2007;12:98– 101.

Izah SC, Bassey SE, Ohimain EI. Amino acid and proximate composition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae biomass cultivated in cassava mill effluents. Molecular Microbiology Research. 2017;7(3):10–5376.

Olorunfemi DI, Emoefe EO, Okiemen FE. Effect of Cassava Processing Effluent on seedling height, biomass and chlorophyII content on some cereals. Department of Botany, University of Benin. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2008;2(3):221– 227.

Ogboghodo IA, Oluwafemi AP, Unuigbe CA. Effect of Polluting Soil with Cassava (Manihot esculenta) mill effluent on maize growth and some soil properties. Nigerian Journal of Applied Sciences. 2003;21:62–67.