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‘Usar’ soil is widespread about 25% lands are ‘Usar’/ Saline /Alkaline in India. ‘Usar’ soils are unproductive, impermeable, hard and compacts. Sodic limits the plants growth via poor water infiltration, increased mechanical resistance to root growth, water logging and poor water availability in the soil profile. The saline and alkaline lands of the state of Utter Pradesh are collectively known by the local name of ‘Usar’ lands. It has been estimated that about 2.1 million acres of land in this state. ‘Usar’ soils micro-organism (Cyanobacteria) with affluent diversity. In this study, abundance and diversity of cyanobacteria from the wastelands of Azamgarh and Varanasi districts (Uttar Pradesh) in India was studied. Soils samples were collected from three different sampling sites during the month of May 2016 to April 2017. Totally 50 morphologically different cyanobacteria were identify by microscopic examination and culture-dependent processes. The unicellular, multicellular and filamentous (heterocystous and non-heterocystous forms) cyanobacteria like Nostoc calcicola, N.linckia, N.punctiforme, N.spongiaeforme, N.illipsosporum, Anabaena ambigua A.fertilisma, A.iyangarii, Lyngbya ceylanica, L.limnetica, Phormidium sp.,Chroococcus micrococcus, C.gigantus, Spirulina laxissima, Anabaenopsis arnoldii, Microcoleus cathanoplastas, M.lacustris, Oscillatoria subbrivis O.chlorina The genus Nostoc, Anabaena, Lyngbya and Oscillatoria strain were widely distributed in all the sites emphasizing their adaptability and resilience under diverse environmental condition. Shannon-Wiener diversity index showed Bunda (site-1) with the highest cyanobacterial diversity (3.41) and the lowest was found in Bhawanipur (Site-3).Similarly, Simpson’s diversity index was also highest in Bunda (Site-1) (0.966) whereas Bhawanipur recorded lowest (0.901). However,Simpson’s index was maximum in Bhawanipur (0.0839) and was minimum in Bunda (0.0378). Shannon evenness was highest in Bunda (0.866) and lowest was found in Bhawanipur(0.759).
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