Main Article Content



Increase the germination of seed and breakdown the dormancy is the major issue among plants of Cucurbitaceae family due to the presence of hard seed coat. Seeds of both Luffa cylindrica and Momordica charantia have hard seed coat with thick seed structure. Also, deposition of phenolic compounds including pectin and/or suberin on the surface of the seed coat, restrict water uptake into the seed. Seed germination treatments are helpful to increase the germination rate. Therefore, batches of seeds for both plants subjected to various seed germination treatments: Physical treatments such as Nicking, Chilling, Soaking and Pre- Soaking, Moist Cloth Bag were applied and Chemical Treatments such as soaking in Acetone, Hydrogen Peroxide, Potassium nitrate with their variables in respect to control. After germination the seedling were transferred to the sapling-bags for further growth and development of the vegetative parts to observe the changes occurred due to the treatments. After the seedling growth, internal structure of stem as well as root were observed. Noticeable changes were observed in the development of vascular bundles. Treatments such as Hydrogen peroxide, Potassium nitrate, Moist cloth bag and soaking in distilled water and boiled water gives good results for higher germination rate.


Seeds, hard seed coat, seed germination rate, physical treatments, chemical treatments

Article Details

How to Cite
VADERA, H. R., PANDYA, J. B., & MEHTA, S. K. (2021). DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN SEEDLINGS OF Luffa cylindrica M. ROEM. AND Momordica charantia L. DUE TO THE SEED GERMINATION TREATMENTS. Asian Journal of Plant and Soil Sciences, 6(2), 23-36. Retrieved from
Original Research Article


Bradbeer JW. Seed dormancy and germination. Springer Verlag; Bonn; Germany; 1988.

Fonseka H, Fonseka RM. Studies on deterioration and germination of Bitter gourd seed (Momordica charantia l.) during storage. Acta Hortic. 2011;898:31-38.
DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2011

Chaodumrikul S, Kaewsorn P, Chulaka P, Chanprasert W. Breaking seed dormancy in smooth loofah (Luffa cylindrica (L.) M. Roem.) using scarification and dry heat treatment; Agriculture and Natural Resources. 2016;50(2):85-88. ISSN 2452-316X;


Doijode SD. Seed storage of horticultural crops. Food Products Press; NewYork; NY; USA; 2001.

Egley GH. Water-impermeable seed coverings as barriers to germination. In: Taylorson R.B. (eds) Recent Advances in the Development and Germination of Seeds. NATO ASI Series (Series A: Life Sciences). Springer; Boston; MA. 1989;187.


Baskin JM, Baskin CC. A classification system for seed dormancy. Seed Sci. Res. 2004;14:1e16.

Singh D, Dathan ASR. Morphology and embryology. In: Nayar; N.M,More; T.A. (Eds.); Cucurbits. Science Publishers; Inc, India. 1998;67e95.

Pinmanee S, Vearasilp S, Suriyong S, Thanapornpoonpong S, Krittigamas N, Pawalzik E. Optimization the germination requirements for Momordica charantia Linn. Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development. 9–11 October; Deutscher Tropentag; Bonn; Germany; 2001.

Darby RJ, Salter PJ. A technique for osmotically pre-treating and germinating quantities of small seeds. Annals of Applied Biology, 1976;83:313-315.


Malik IJ, Ellington TL, Wehner TC, Sanders DC. Seed treatment effects on emergence of luffa sponge gourd. Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Report. 2001;24:107- 109.

Kazem G, Ali AA, Mustafa V, Mohammad M. Effects of different priming techniques on seed invigoration and seedling establishment of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik). Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment. 2008;6(2):222-226.

Ramezani S, Parsa G, Mohammad B, Naderi M. Effect of physical and chemical treatments on seed germination and dormancy breaking of Prosopis farcta. Internatıonal Journal of Natural and Engineering Sciences. 2010;4(1):45-48.

Pandya J, Patel P, Patale V, Mehta K. Germination treatments for watermelon seeds. Bioscience Guardian. 2012;2:197-200.

Badoni A. Identification of dormancy in the seeds of sponge gourd. International Journal of Pure & Applied Bioscience. 2018;6:295-297.

Godwin Okon. Seed germination and dormancy breaking in seeds of Cucurbita maxima Duch. and Cucumis sativus L. in response to different treatments. Agricultural Studies. 2018;1:11-18.

Tao KL, Khan AA. Penetration of dry seeds with chemicals applied in Acetone Plant Physiology. 1974; 54(6):December 1974:956–958.


Shim SI, Moon JC, Jang CS, Reymar P, Kim WK. Effect of potassium nitrate priming on seed germination of seashore Paspalum; Hortscience. 2008;43(7):2259– 2262.

Sang IS, Moon Jun-Cheol, Cheol SJ, Raymer P, Kim Wook. Effect of potassium nitrate priming on seed germination of seashore paspalum. HortScience. 2008;43:2259-2262.

Çavuşoğlu K, Cadıl S, Çavuşoğlu, D. Role of Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) in Alleviation of Detrimental Effects of Salt Stress on Some Physiological and Cytogenetical Parameters in Allium cepa L. CYTOLOGIA. 2017;82:279-286.

DOI: 10.1508/cytologia.82.279.

Wahua AC, Okoli BE, Sam SM. Comparative morphological; histological; cytological and phytochemical studies on Capsicum frutescens Linn. and Capsicum annuum Linn. [Solanaceae] International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 2013;4(1):1-8.

Saleem M. Effect of seed soaking on seed germination and growth of bitter gourd cultivars. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. 2013;6:07-11.


XiaoJie L, Baskin JM, Baskin CC. Seed morphology and physical dormancy of several North American Rhus species (Anacardiaceae). Science Research. 1999;Part: 3; 9:247-258.

Chien H, Lin TP. Mechanism of hydrogen peroxide in improving the germination of Cinnamomum camphora seed. Seed Sci. Technol. 1994;22:231-236.

Shethi Kishwar, Doty Mabia, Liza Saima, Rashid Parveen. Anatomical study of Momordica charantia L. from Bangladesh. Dhaka University Journal of Biological Sciences. 2018;27.

Yasuda A. On the comparative anatomy of the Cucurbitaceae; wild and cultivated; in Japan. J. Sci. Coll. 1903;18(4):1-56.