Original Research Article

QUALITY OF EARNINGS AND HEALTH: BOTH INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

SALEH MD. FAISAL

Asian Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Studies, Volume 2, Issue 2, Page 42-50

Quality of earnings is an important concept both for individual perspective as well as organizational perspective. The earning quality of an organization or an individual affects its financial health or physical health. Though one can main good financial health of an organization through manipulation but it will not sustain in the end (Example of such matter is Enron).  In any quality of earnings analysis it’s critical to assess the quality of health. Ensuring a healthcare properly recognizes earning on an accrual basis is fundamental in assessing historical trends in operations. This is particularly important in healthcare as many target earning  report financial statements on a cash basis and may be subject to seasonality, which can further distort a earning’ underlying operations. If earnings follow the paths of knowledge, scrutiny, interactions, and competition, expenditures will also follow these paths. On the other hand, if earnings follow the paths of linkage and ideology, expenditures also follow these paths. Better medicine, better treatment and early diagnosis may reduce the mortality but the earning process without adequate knowledge, sufficient interactions and transparency and performance may increase morbidity and limit active life. Better health service may increase life expectancy but knowledge and quality of earnings may increase both life expectancy and disease and disability free life expectancy and the study find that.

Original Research Article

PATTERNS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR FAMILY REARING AMONG WOMEN IN NIGERIA: THE CASE OF CALABAR METROPOLIS

STELLA B. ESUABANA

Asian Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Studies, Volume 2, Issue 2, Page 37-41

This study examined the pattern of domestic violence and its implication for family rearing among women in Nigeria. This study was based in Calabar metropolis. The study adopted four research questions. The sample population for this study comprised of 350 women in the study area. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire titled" Pattern of Domestic Violence and Implication for Family Rearing (PDVIFR). The instrument consisted of two sections. The section comprises of demographic variables while section B consisted of 26 items. The instrument was validated by experts. Simple percentage was used as a statistical tool to analyses the research questions. Results showed verbal, physical, sexual and emotional violence at prevalence rates of 38.0%, 26.5%, 10.7% and 1.4%, respectively. A total of 14.0% had experienced a combination of physical and verbal abuse while 7.0% had experienced a combination of physical and sexual violence. Full-time housewives and self-employed women were most abused, of which 82.7% had no definite timing pattern. The domestic violence pattern is varied: the commonest forms are verbal, physical, sexual and emotional, and in some cases a combination of some or all of these forms. It was therefore recommended that wives should be rather employed to reduce domestic violence at home.

Original Research Article

APPLICABILITY OF DECISION MAKING THEORY IN AFRICAN UNION: A CASE OF AFRICAN CONTINENTAL FREE TRADE AREA

SHEHU ENOCH AMILA

Asian Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Studies, Volume 2, Issue 2, Page 51-56

This paper has examined decision making theory in the light of African Union. It employed the secondary data and content analysis. Concept of international organization was conceptualised and classified (base on membership and competency). Basic assumptions of decision making theory were enumerated and operationalized in African Union (AU) with particular attention to African continental free trade Area. The Assembly, executive council and permanent representative committee were discovered to be principal institution in term of decision making and AU make decision by majority vote and consensus. Whatever state representative does at AU is still subject his/her state position. Fund and state’s national interest are one of the causes of delay in decision making and implementation.

Original Research Article

ASSESSING THE OPPORTUNITIES OF PROMOTING ECOTOURISM IN GABHAR VALLEY: A CASE STUDY FROM BUFFER ZONE OF BANKE NATIONAL PARK

SANDHYA KARKI, KESHAB BARAL, DEEPAK GAUTAM, CATHERINE MHAE B. JANDUG, LAXMI KHANAL, DHRUBA BIJAYA G. C.

Asian Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Studies, Volume 2, Issue 2, Page 57-66

Nepal has an abundance of opportunities for the ecotourism industry and is very rich in nature and culture. Despite having a lot of tourism potentialities there are still many places in Nepal that are yet to be explored. Gabhar valley is a beautiful village which has recently been listed as one of the 100 ecotourism destinations in Nepal. The objective of this study was to explore the potential eco-tourism attractions/features, ecotourism activities and perception of local people and visitors towards ecotourism in Gabhar valley. Data were collected through key informant interviews, questionnaire surveys with households, visitors and focus group discussions. Out of 440 households in the valley, 25 percent (n=110) households were selected randomly. Three point Likert scale disagree to agree (0-2) was employed in analyzing the perception of local people and visitors towards ecotourism. chi-square test was used to see the variation in the perception of local people. Simple descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage and mean were used to analyze the data, and are presented in different charts and tables. The ecotourism attraction/features such homestays, Lion's Gabhar park, ostrich farm, etc were identified and bird watching, jungle walk, jeep safari, cycling, etc are ecotourism activities in the area. Apart from existing ecotourism attractions/features and activities view tower, Tharu cultural museum, treehouse, horse riding and fishing pond can add further opportunities for ecotourism development in this area. Most of the local people and visitors were positive towards the ecotourism promotion in the area. Long term policy should be made to enhance tourism activities to attract more visitors in the area.

Original Research Article

SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT IN KINDERGARTEN BY PROSPECTIVE EDUCATORS

MARINA SOUNOGLOU

Asian Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Studies, Volume 2, Issue 2, Page 67-73

Systematic observation is an alternative form of assessment which is used to evaluate infant development. Prospective educators use the systematic observation in their internship. This is the basic way of assessing infants using observation guides in the kindergarten area, in order to observe the behavior of infants between to classmates and adults, the action of infants during the breaks, leisure activities and organized activities. The sample of survey consists of 184 students of the 2nd year in the School of Early Childhood Education of the University of Thessaly during the academic year 2018-2019. The methodology that was used was the qualitative discourse analysis of the student evaluations minutes. The conclusions indicate the effectiveness of systematic observation in the evaluation of all-round development of infants, with major preferred techniques of check list and short reports due to inexperience and scarce time. Finally, analyzing the needs, the constraints and the perspectives that reflected by the survey, it is proposed a holistic approach to the assessment by systematic observation of infants.