Main Article Content
Knowing the development of the root system of the tree under certain environmental conditions is a very important indicator as it has a direct impact on the vegetation's progress and its productivity. Knowing the root system distribution and its nature helps maximize the efficiency of fertilization, irrigation and preservation of the environment from pollution. Through the present study we aimed to elucidate as to what the rootstock - cultivar relationship is and how it affects the spatial distribution of the root system and its structure depending on the cultivar and the age of the tree.
The study was conducted in the condition of the Albanian Coastal Lowlands, where currently about 30% of the new apple orchards are planted. ‘Starking’, ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Gala’ cultivars, grafted on the ‘M9’ under grafting (rootsotcks), were included in the the study. For studying the root system, the cross-strain method was applied.
The data obtained showed that the trenched-profile method, though quite troublesome, provide important data for the distribution of the apple tree root system and thereby guiding us to effectively carry out agro-technical services. For all three cultivars studied, the root mass (about 80%) lies in depths up to 70 cm, and in widths up to 120 cm. About 90% of the roots are distributed. Once passed the 10 year age, we have a significant decrease in the total number of roots (about 30%), as well as a change in their structure. The root system typology is a characteristic of the under grafting genome and is unchanged for all three cultivars. Among the three cultivars analyzed, Cv. ‘Starking’ shows the best level of compliance. The rootstock) has influenced vegetation and elements of cultivar cultivation, while the scion has influenced the amount of roots and the nature of their distribution.