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Chiliadenus montanus (Vhal.) Brullo is a vulnerable medicinal plant species growing in the Saint Katherine area, South Sinai, Egypt. It is subjected to overgrazing and collection by Bedouins for its high medicinal value in treating different diseases due to its effective bioactivity. Contributing in designing a conservation plan, this study aims to investigate the environmental factors affecting growth and distribution of C. montanus throughout its distribution range in St. Katherine Protectorate through (a) measuring plant cover of different plant species in the selected locations (sites) and stands (quadrates), (b) recording different environmental parameters, (c) analyzing of some soil physical and chemical properties. Results showed that C. montanus grows at high elevation in the selected sites ranging from 1745 m a.s.l. to 2015 m a.s.l. in fissures of mountains on alkaline soil with high bicarbonate and organic matter content, and low percentage of silt and clay and subsequently, low moisture content.