Main Article Content
Background: Developing and poor states have relatively poor standard of health care systems. Rural areas are affected in particular while maternal health is specifically ignored. This study aims to make a descriptive profile of the maternal health in Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan which is geographically isolated and extremely rural area of Pakistan.
Study Design: Cross-sectional and quantitative.
Methodology: The population was identified through a household survey. Sample size was determined through creative online survey system. An interview schedule was prepared to collect the information while SPSS was used to analyze the collected information.
Findings: The status of maternal health in Chitral is very poor by modern standards. Geographic and infrastructural barriers are important reasons. The conditions of roads is poor and are not appropriate for women to travel during pregnancy. Distances from hospitals are long; thereby, many families prefer to use traditional Dai system. Deaths during maternity are reported whereby lack of appropriate and modern gynecological facilitation are responsible. Patients are often to sent to far away hospitals in case of minor complications. Affordability issues and poor socio-economic status of women are also found to be important in poor maternal health in Chitral. Cultural setup such as Dai system, beliefs on fate, continuing pregnancies till having male children, more number of children and perceiving the use of contraceptives as a sin also contributes to poor maternal health in the study area.
Conclusion: The status of maternal health is by far low by modern standards in Bonni, Chitral, Pakistan. Rural set up, harsh geography (creating infrastructural and facilitations barriers), poverty and the cultural set up are responsible for poor maternal health.
Bhopal S, Halpin S, Gerein N. Emergency obstetric referral in rural Sierra Leone: What can motorbike ambulances contribute? A mixed-methods study. Maternal Child Health. 2013;17(6):1038-1043.
Kenya National Bureau of statistics. Nairobi: Government Printer. 2009 Kenya Population and Housing Census; 2010.
Rajé F. Rural transport interventions to improve maternal health outcomes. K4D Helpdesk Report. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies; 2018.
Hussein J, Kanguru L, Astin M, Munjanja. What kinds of policy and programme interventions contribute to reductions in maternal mortality? The effectiveness of primary level referral systems for emergency maternity care in developing countries. Technical report. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London; 2011.
UNICEF. World not delivering quality maternal health care to poorest mothers; 2019.
(Retrieved on 24/7/2018)
Federal Bureau of Statistics, Pakistan. Pakistan Demographic Survey, 2005.Islamabad: Federal Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division. Federal Bureau of Statistics, Pakistan; 2007.
Women News Network. Afghanistan: Large families encouraged by culture as well as religion; 2012.
(Retrieved on 20/7/2018)
WHO. Maternal Mortality Fact Sheet; 2018.
UNFPA. Maternal Health; 2017.
(Retrieved on 22/7/2018)
Rashid S. Citizen report card study. Transparency International, Pakistan; 2018.
(Retrieved on 15/7/2018)
Essindi et al. Infrastructural challenges to better health in maternity facilities in rural Kenya: community and healthworker perceptions. Reprod Health. 2015;12:103.