BOOSTING ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS AMONG FEMALE TOURISM STUDENTS THROUGH SOCIAL SUPPORT AND ENTREPRENEURIAL SELF-EFFICACY IN EGYPT: CAN ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION MODERATE?

Main Article Content

MARWA REFAAT MAHMOUD AHMED
KALSOM KAYAT

Abstract

The current paper aimed to conceptually underline the prediction of entrepreneurial intentions of female students in Egypt. The paper asserts through prior scholarly evidence that social support and entrepreneurial self-efficacy can have a massive value towards enhancing females’ entrepreneurial intentions. The paper sheds light on how social support means may allow an individual to increase willingness to engage in entrepreneurial activities mainly for females. Accordingly, the paper also sheds light on why it is essential to boost individual confidence in themselves (efficacy) to further these intentions for entrepreneurial willingness. In addition, throughout the literature, it has been identified that entrepreneurship education is one of the most important factors that steer entrepreneurial intention towards starting a venture and considered as a key area in entrepreneurship’s domain. In this sense, the paper further outlines that there is a potential of the significant moderating role of Entrepreneurship Education on these relationships between Social Support and Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy on Female entrepreneurial Intention. The paper presents a critical reflection, debate and arguments over the topic for future scholars aiming to work on developing entrepreneurial intentions particularly among the Egyptian female students who are the actual business leaders of tomorrow. The paper forwards recommendation for aspiring scholars on the topic alongside conceptual framework and prepositions.

Keywords:
Female entrepreneurial intentions, entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, social support.

Article Details

How to Cite
MAHMOUD AHMED, M. R., & KAYAT, K. (2020). BOOSTING ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS AMONG FEMALE TOURISM STUDENTS THROUGH SOCIAL SUPPORT AND ENTREPRENEURIAL SELF-EFFICACY IN EGYPT: CAN ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION MODERATE?. Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, 25(6), 376-385. Retrieved from http://www.ikprress.org/index.php/JOBARI/article/view/4889
Section
Short Research Articles

References

Grimaldi R, Kenney M, Siegel DS, Wright M. 30 years after Bayh–Dole: Reassessing academic entrepreneurship. Research Policy. 2011;40(8):1045-1057.

Urbano D, Aparicio S, Audretsch DB. The effect of entrepreneurial activity on economic growth. In Institutions, Entrepreneurship, and Economic Performance. 2019;85-106. Springer, Cham.

Turker D, Sonmez Selçuk S. Which factors affect entrepreneurial intention of university students?. Journal of European Industrial Training. 2009;33(2):142-159.

Kautonen T, van Gelderen M, Fink M. Robustness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 2015;39(3):655-674.

Acs ZJ, Bosma N, Sternberg R. Entrepreneurship in world cities. The dynamics of entrepreneurship: Evidence from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Data. 2011;125-151.

El Assar HHS, Said H. An Empirical Approach of (SMTEs) 1 Tourism Entrepreneurship in Alexandria: Characteristics and Obstacles. In ECIE 2015-10th European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship: ECIE. Academic Conferences and publishing limited. 2015;185.

Langowitz N, Minniti M. The entrepreneurial propensity of women. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 2007;31(3):341-364.

World Bank; 2016.
Available: tradingeconomic.com

Available:https://tradingeconomics.com/middle-east-and-north-africa/population-female-percent-of-total-wb-data.html

Minniti M, Naudé W. What do we know about the patterns and determinants of female entrepreneurship across countries? 2010;277-293.

European Commission. Innovation Union Scoreboard 2011; 2012.

Jamali D. Constraints and opportunities facing women entrepreneurs in developing countries: A relational perspective. Gender in Management: An International Journal. 2009; 24(4):232-251.

Ismail A, Tolba A, Barakat S. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, GEM, Egypt National Report. 2015-2016.
Available:http://www.gemconsortium.org/report/49755

Ismail A, Tolba A, Barakat S. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, GEM, Egypt National Report; 2016-2017.
Available:http://www.gemconsortium.org/report/49755

Ismail A, Tolba A, Barakat S, Meshreki H. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, GEM, Egypt National Report; 2018-2018.
Available:http://www.gemconsortium.org/report/49755

Ashourizadeh S, Chavoushi ZH, Schøtt T. People’s confidence in innovation: A component of the entrepreneurial mindset, embedded in gender and culture, affecting entrepreneurial intention. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business. 2014; 23(1-2):235-251.

Gundry LK, Ben-Yoseph M, Posig M. The status of women's entrepreneurship: Pathways to future entrepreneurship development and education. New England Journal of Entrepreneurship. 2002;5(1):4.

Goyal P, Yadav V. To be or not to be a woman entrepreneur in a developing country? Psychosociological Issues in Human Resource Management. 2014;2(2):68–78.

Zhang J, Duan Y. The impact of different types of market orientation on product innovation performance: Evidence from Chinese manufacturers. Management decision. 2010;48 (6):849-867.

Arendt S, Brettel M. Understanding the influence of corporate social responsibility on corporate identity, image and firm performance. Management Decision. 2010;48 (10):1469-1492.

Boyd NG, Vozikis GS. The influence of self-efficacy on the development of entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 1994;18:63-63.

Drennan J, Kennedy J, Renfrow P. Impact of childhood experiences on the development of entrepreneurial intentions. The International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation. 2005;6(4):231-238

Fayolle A, Liñán F. The future of research on entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Research. 2014;67(5):663-666.

Shane S, Venkataraman S. The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review. 2000;25 (21):217–226.

Remeikiene R, Startiene G, Dumciuviene D. Explaining entrepreneurial intention of university students: the role of entrepreneurial education. In International Conference. 2013; 299-307.
Avaiable:http://www.toknowpress.net/ISBN/978-961-6914-02-4/papers/ML13- 258.pdf

Krueger Jr. NF, Brazeal DV. Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 1994; 18(3):91-104.

Zhao H, Seibert SE, Hills GE. The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2005;90(6):1265.

Krueger Jr. NF, Reilly MD, Carsrud AL. Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing. 2000;15(5-6):411-432.

Bird BJ, West III GP. Time and entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 21998;22(2):5-9.

Iakovleva T, Kolvereid L, Stephan U. Entrepreneurial intentions in developing and developed countries. Education+ Training. 2011;53(5):353-370.

Soliman DM. Entrepreneurial intention among tourism undergraduate students in Egypt. Tourism Analysis. 2011;16(4):471-481.

Moustafa G, Santos A. Female entrepreneurship in developing countries, Barriers and Motivation: Case Study, Egypt and Brazil; 2016.

Paul J, Shrivatava A. Do young managers in a developing country have stronger entrepreneurial intentions? Theory and debate. International Business Review. 2016;25(6): 1197-1210.

Bird B. Implementing entrepreneurial ideas: The case for intention. Academy of Management Review. 1988;13(3):442-453.

Bird B, Jelinek M. The operation of entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 1989;13(2):21-30.

Krueger NF. The cognitive psychology of entrepreneurship. In Acs ZJ & Audretsch DB (Eds.), Handbook of entrepreneurship research: An interdisciplinary survey and introduction. London: Kluwer. 2003;105-140.

Thompson ER. Individual entrepreneurial intent: Construct clarification and development of an internationally reliable metric. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 2009; 33:669–694.

Katz J, Gartner WB. Properties of emerging organizations. Academy of Management Review. 1988;13(3):429-441.

Krueger Jr. NF. What lies beneath? The experiential essence of entrepreneurial thinking. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 2007;31(1):123-138.

Kessler A, Frank, H. Nascent entrepreneurship in a longitudinal perspective: The impact of person, environment, resources and the founding process on the decision to start business activities. International Small Business Journal. 2009;127(6):720-742.

Engle RL, Dimitriadi N, Gavidia JV, Schlaegel C, Delanoe S, Alvarado I, He X, Buame S, Wolff B. Entrepreneurial intent: A twelve-country evaluation of Ajzen's model of planned behavior', International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research. 2010; 16(1):36-58.

Ortega-Anderez D, Lai E. The main factors influencing entrepreneurial activities and intentions within a country - A case study of Spain. International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology. 2017; 8(1):32.

Itani H, Sidani YM, Baalbaki I. United Arab Emirates female entrepreneurs: motivations and frustrations, Equality Diversity and Inclusion. An International Journal. 2009;30 (5):409-424.

Guerrero V, Richards J. Female entrepreneurs and negotiation self-efficacy: A study on negotiation skill building among women entrepreneurs. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education. 2015;18(2):17.

Díaz-García MC, Jiménez-Moreno J. Entrepreneurial intention: the role of gender. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. 2010;6(3):261-283.

Segal G, Borgia D, Schoenfeld J. The motivation to become an entrepreneur. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research. 2005;11(1):42-57.

Sahban MA, Kumar M, Sri Ramalu S. Instrument development: Entrepreneurial Social Support Assessment Instrument (IESSA). Research Journal of Economics & Business Studies. 2015;4(3):21-36.

Kapusuz AG, Çavuş MF, Pekkan NÜ. Perceived Social Support and Social Entrepreneurship: Gender Perspective from Turkey. In Knowledge, Learning and Innovation. 2018;75-90. Springer, Cham.

House JS. Work stress and social support. Addison-Wesley Series on Occupational Stress; 1983.

Sarason IG, Sarason BR, Shearin EN, Pierce GR. A brief measure of social support: Practical and theoretical implications. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. 1987; 4(4):497-510.

Bagheri A, Pihie ZAL, Akmaliah Z. Role of family in entrepreneurial leadership development of university students. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2010;11(4):434-442.

Ismail A, Nor SM, Yahya Z, Zahar UAU, Ismail Y, Ainon JAS. Social support in job performance as an antecedent of work intrusion on family conflict: Empirical evidence. Management: Journal of Contemporary Management Issues. 2013;18(2) L37-55. Zafar MJ, Yasin G, Ijaz M. Social networking a source for developing entrepreneurial intentions among entrepreneurs: A case of Multan. Asian Economic and Financial Review. 2012;2(8): 1072.

Kapusuz AG, Çavuş MF, Pekkan NÜ. Perceived Social Support and Social Entrepreneurship: Gender Perspective from Turkey. In Knowledge, Learning and Innovation. Springer, Cham. 2018;75-90

Robson PJ, Bennett RJ. SME growth: The relationship with business advice and external collaboration. Small Business Economics. 2000;15(3):193-208.

Greene FJ, Saridakis G. Understanding the factors influencing graduate entrepreneurship. National Council for Graduate Entrepreneurship Research Report. 2007;1.

Kapusuz AG, Çavuş MF, Pekkan NÜ. Perceived Social Support and Social Entrepreneurship: Gender Perspective from Turkey. In Knowledge, Learning and Innovation. Springer, Cham. 2018;75-90.

Leon JAM, Descals FJP, Domínguez JFM. The psychosocial profile of the university entrepreneur. Psychology in Spain. 2007;11 (1):72-84.

Mustikawati I, Bachtiar M. Hubungan Antar Dukungan Sosial (Orang Tua) Dengan Minat Berwirausaha Pada Siswa Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan. Fakultas Psikologi dan Ilmu Sosial Budaya, Universitas Islam Indonesia; 2008.

Molino M, Dolce V, Cortese CG, Ghislieri C. Personality and social support as determinants of entrepreneurial intention. Gender differences in Italy. PloS one. 2018;13(6):e0199924.

Farooq MS, Salam M, ur Rehman S, Fayolle A, Jaafar N, Ayupp K. Impact of support from social network on entrepreneurial intention of fresh business graduates: A structural equation modelling approach. Education+ Training. 2018;60(4):335-353.

Gray KR, Foster H, Howard M. Motivations of moroccans to be entrepreneurs. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship. 2006;11(04): 297-318.

Bandura A, Adams NE. Analysis of self-efficacy theory of behavioral change. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 1977;1(4):287-310.

Ajzen I. The theory of planned behaviour. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes. 1991;50(2):179-211.

Chen CC, Greene PG, Crick A. Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers? Journal of Business Venturing. 1998;13:295-316.

Bryant P. Self-regulation and decision heuristics in entrepreneurial opportunity evaluation and exploitation. Management Decision. 2007;45(4):732-748.

Schjoedt L, Shaver KG. Deciding on an entrepreneurial career: A test of the pull and push hypotheses using the panel study of entrepreneurial dynamics data. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 2007;31 (5): 733-752.

McGee JE, Peterson M, Mueller SL, Sequeira JM. Entrepreneurial self‐efficacy: Refining the measure. Entrepreneurship theory and Practice. 2009;33(4):965-988.

Bandura A. Exercise of human agency through collective efficacy. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 2000;9:75–78.

Linan F. Skill and value perceptions: how do they affect entrepreneurial intentions?. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. 2008;4(3):257-272.

Shinnar RS, Hsu DK, Powell BC. Self-efficacy, entrepreneurial intentions, and gender: Assessing the impact of entrepreneurship education longitudinally. The International Journal of Management Education. 2014;12(3):561-570.

Lee L, Wong P, Der Foo M, Leung A. Entrepreneurial intentions: The influence of organizational and individual factors. Journal of Business Venturing. 2011;26:124-136.

Saraih UN, Aris AZZ, Mutalib SA, Ahmad TST, Abdullah S, Amlus MH. The influence of self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intention among engineering students. In MATEC Web of Conferences. 2018;150: 05051. EDP Sciences.

Drnovšek M, Wincent J, Cardon MS. Entrepreneurial self-efficacy and business start-up: developing a multi-dimensional definition. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research. 2010;16(4): 329-348.

Utamin CW. Attitude, subjective norms, perceived behaviour, entrepreneurship education and self-efficacy towards entrepreneurial intention university student in Indonesia. European Research Studies Journal. 2017;20(24):475-495.

Bandura A. On the functional properties of perceived self-efficacy revisited. 2012;9-44.

Aloulou WJ. The Prediction of Entrepreneurial intentions among Preparatory Year’Saudi Students: Testing an intent model. In ICIE 2015 3rd International Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship: ICIE 2015. Academic Conferences Limited. 2015;25.

Tsai KH, Chang HC, Peng CY. Extending the link between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and intention: A moderated mediation model. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. 2016;12(2):445-463.

Mehtap S, Caputo A, Pellegrini MM. Encouraging female entrepreneurship in Jordan: Environmental factors, obstacles and challenges. In Entrepreneurship and management in an Islamic context. Springer, Cham. 2017;207-225.

Ciappei C, Laudano MC, Zollo L, Rialti R. Evaluating the quality of entrepreneurial education analysing its ability to increase entrepreneurial attitude and intent of students. In Toulon-Verona Conference, Excellence in Services; 2016.

Von Graevenitz G, Harhoff D, Weber R. The effects of entrepreneurship education. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. 2010;76(1):90-112.

Busenitz L, Plummer L, Klotz A, Shahzad A, Rhoads K. Entrepreneurship research (1985–2009) and the emergence of opportunities. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice. 2014;38(5):981–1000.

Fayolle A, Gailly B. The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial attitudes and intention: Hysteresis and persistence. Journal of Small Business Management. 2015;53(1):75-93.

Zhang Y, Duysters G, Cloodt M. The role of entrepreneurship education as a predictor of university students’ entrepreneurial intention. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal. 2014;10(3): 623-641.

Hattab HW. Impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions of university students in Egypt. The Journal of Entrepreneurship. 2014;23(1):1-18.

Shinnar RS, Giacomin O, Janssen F. Entrepreneurial perceptions and intentions: The role of gender and culture. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 2012;36(3):465-493.

Byabashaija W, Katono I. The impact of college entrepreneurial education on entrepreneurial attitudes and intention to start a business in Uganda. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship. 2011;16(01): 127-144.