Main Article Content



Cold fluid was flowed through pipeline whereas hot fluid was flowed through the side from side in a side-tee pipeline formation. Experiments were carried out reading temperature of downstream flow for varied velocities. Computational fluid dynamics package was used for geometry creation, mesh generation, and defining the control volume for computations according to the experimentations for varied velocities. Results validated the model and scale up of the geometry was made whereas the diameter ratio constant was kept constant for creation of scale-up geometry. For the scale-up geometry for varied velocities, computations are performed too and heat transfer mixing position is located for both cases for various velocities. For scale-up geometry, it is plotted that downstream heat transfer mixing position is lengthily distanced. Earlier mixing is attained for lower velocities comparatively.

Pipeline, scale up, mixing, side injection, temperature, heat transfer.

Article Details

How to Cite
KHOKHAR, Z. H. (2019). SCALE-UP OF SIDE-TEE PIPELINE. Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, 25(6), 301–306. Retrieved from
Short Research Articles


Zughbi HD, Khokhar ZH, Sharma RN. Numerical and experimental investigations of mixing at side and opposed-tees. AIChE Annual Conf., Indianapolis, USA; 2002.

Chilton TH, Genereaux RP. The mixing of gases for reactions. AIChE J. Trans. 1930;25: 103.

Cozewith C, Busko M. Design co-relations for mixing tees. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1989;28: 1521-1530.

Lin C, O'Brien EE. Turbulent shear flow mixing and rapid chemical reactions: An analogy. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 1974;64(01):195-206.

Aunicky Z. The longitudinal mixing of liquids flowing successively in pipelines. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering. 1970;48(1):12-16.

Austin J, Palfrey J. Mixing of miscible but dissimilar liquids in serial flow in a pipeline. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 1963;178(1):377-389.

Krantz W, Wasan D. Axial dispersion in the turbulent flow of power-law fluids in straight tubes. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals. 1974;13(1):56-62.

Andreopoulos J. Heat transfer measurements in a heated jet‐pipe flow issuing into a cold cross stream. The Physics of Fluids. 1983;26(11): 3201-3210.

Hansen L, Guilkey JE, McMurtry PA, Klewicki JC. The use of photoactivatable fluorophores in the study of turbulent pipe mixing: effects of inlet geometry. Measurement Science and Technology. 2000;11(9):1235.

Khokhar ZH, Zughbi HD, Siddiqui SW. Effects of jet arrangement on mixing in pipelines with side-tees. International Conference on Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah; 2003.

Zughbi HD. Effects of jet protrusion on mixing in pipelines with side-tees. Chemical Engineering Research and Design. 2006;84(11):993-1000.

Zhao Y, Chen G, Yuan Q. Liquid–liquid two‐phase mass transfer in the T‐junction microchannels. AIChE Journal. 2007;53(12): 3042-3053.