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The purpose of this study was to determine Zambian primary school pupils’ understanding of the concept of integers. To accomplish this aim, 149 pupils were randomly selected from ten primary schools in Kapiri Mposhi district of central Zambia to participate in a pencil and paper test on the topic integers. The test was designed to measure the level of conceptual knowledge of the pupils related to integers. This study is part of a wide ongoing study aimed at understanding Zambian pupils knowledge of fractions and integers. Findings of the current study revealed conceptual gaps in the knowledge levels of the pupils. Participants exhibited difficulties with negative integers. In terms of gender, it was revealed that male participants performed better than their female counterparts. These results have implications on the performance of pupils in national examinations as these gaps are likely to manifest during national examinations. Zambian teachers are expected to use the findings of this study to try out teaching strategies that will promote conceptual understanding of integer concepts.