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Clays have been use in therapeutics for a long time and proliferation of thermal mud centers testifies to its effectiveness. In our work, anti-inflammatory activity of Ziguinchor mangrove sludge and Mbodiène attapulgite was evaluated, after a chemical and mineralogical characterization. Results obtained showed for mangrove mud multiple components with mainly varying contents in sodium, aluminum, chlorine, silicon and iron. Attapulgite was predominantly composed of silicon 55.15%, magnesium 13.8%, calcium 11.11%, iron 8.3% and aluminum 7.78%. The cation exchange capacity evaluated with the cobaltihexamine ion was 95 meq / 100 g for Attapulgite versus 6.85 meq / 100 g for the mangrove mud. Mineralogical analysis has shown that mangrove mud consists essentially of kaolinite and palygorskite is the dominant mineral of attapulgite with quartz, crystals of ankerites, dolomites. Anti-inflammatory activity evaluation showed a percentage of inhibition of edema induced in croton oil from 25.23% for attapulgite, to 28.34% for Ziguinchor mud, against 52, 26% for Voltaren Emulgel® as reference. These results predict a good way of additional treatment at lower cost for pathologies such as osteoarthritis.