INNATE IMMUNITY AND MICROBIAL INVASION

Main Article Content

IDDAH, M. ALI

Abstract

Aim of Review: Studies have been published in the field of innate system and microbial invasion but much is not know on the mechanisms involved. This review is organized into areas of components and function of the immune system, microbial detection, cells of the innate immune system and homeostasis.

Findings: The innate immune system activates and instructs adaptive immune responses, regulates inflammation, and mediates immune homeostasis which is the balance between opposing pro inflammatory and anti-inflammatory processes. The cells of the innate immune system use pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on microorganisms, and communicate through cytokines. Activation of the innate immune system begins with resident cells such as the macrophages, epithelial cells and mast cells in the tissues at the site of the infection. If the threat of infection accelerates, these cells recruit other cells such as the neutrophils, NK cells, dendritic cells, monocytes and platelets from the circulation into the inflamed tissues. Many of the same cells and mechanisms used to recognize and attack microbes and initiate inflammatory reactions are also used to clear away damaged and dying cells and down regulate inflammation to maintain homeostasis within the host.

Conclusion: The innate immune system refers to germline defense mechanisms that are directed against molecular components found only in microorganisms. These mechanisms are not learned, adapted, or permanently heightened as a result of exposure to microorganisms, although they are refined by evolution over generations.

Keywords:
Host, innate, immunity, microorganisms, inflammation

Article Details

How to Cite
M. ALI, I. (2019). INNATE IMMUNITY AND MICROBIAL INVASION. Asian Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 4(2), 51-64. Retrieved from http://www.ikprress.org/index.php/AJMAB/article/view/4690
Section
Review Article

References

Travis J. Origins. On the origin of the immune system. Science. 2009;324:580.

Boller T, He SY. Innate immunity in plants: an arms race between pattern recognition receptors in plants and effectors in microbial pathogens. Science. 2009;324:742.

Takeuchi O, Akira S. Pattern recognition receptors and inflammation. Cell. 2010;140: 805.

Kumagai Y, Akira S. Identification and functions of pattern-recognition receptors. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125:985.

Beutler BA. TLRs and innate immunity. Blood 2009; 113:1399.

Blasius AL, Beutler B. Intracellular toll-like receptors. Immunity. 2010;32:305.

Shaw MH, Reimer T, Kim YG, Nuñez G. NOD-like receptors (NLRs): bona fide intracellular microbial sensors. Curr Opin Immunol. 2008;20:377.

Wilkins C, Gale M Jr. Recognition of viruses by cytoplasmic sensors. Curr Opin Immunol. 2010;22:41.

Rietschel ET, Kirikae T, Schade FU, et al. Bacterial endotoxin: Molecular relationships of structure to activity and function. FASEB J. 1994;8:217.

Zasloff M. Antimicrobial peptides of multicellular organisms. Nature. 2002;415:389.

Doss M, White MR, Tecle T, Hartshorn KL. Human defensins and LL-37 in mucosal immunity. J Leukoc Biol. 2010; 87:79.

Underwood MA, Bevins CL. Defensin-barbed innate immunity: clinical associations in the pediatric population. Pediatrics. 2010;125: 1237.

Steinstraesser L, Kraneburg U, Jacobsen F, Al-Benna S. Host defense peptides and their antimicrobial-immunomodulatory duality. Immunobiology. 2011;216:322.

Ouellette AJ. Paneth cells and innate mucosal immunity. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2010;26: 547.

Tecle T, Tripathi S, Hartshorn KL. Review: Defensins and cathelicidins in lung immunity. Innate Immun. 2010;16:151.

Lee DJ, Modlin RL. DNA transportation authority. Nat Med. 2008;14:1319.

Vora P, Youdim A, Thomas LS, et al. Beta-defensin-2 expression is regulated by TLR signaling in intestinal epithelial cells. J Immunol. 2004;173:5398.

Birchler T, Seibl R, Büchner K, et al. Human toll-like receptor 2 mediates induction of the antimicrobial peptide human beta-defensin 2 in response to bacterial lipoprotein. Eur J Immunol. 2001;31:3131.

Wang TT, Nestel FP, Bourdeau V, et al. Cutting edge: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is a direct inducer of antimicrobial peptide gene expression. J Immunol. 2004;173:2909.

Schauber J, Dorschner RA, Coda AB, et al. Injury enhances TLR2 function and antimicrobial peptide expression through a vitamin D-dependent mechanism. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:803.

Liu PT, Stenger S, Li H, et al. Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response. Science. 2006;311: 1770.

Zasloff M. Fighting infections with vitamin D. Nat Med. 2006; 12:388.

Chertov O, Yang D, Howard OM, Oppenheim JJ. Leukocyte granule proteins mobilize innate host defenses and adaptive immune responses. Immunol Rev. 2000;177:68.

Niyonsaba F, Iwabuchi K, Matsuda H, et al. Epithelial cell-derived human beta-defensin-2 acts as a chemotaxin for mast cells through a pertussis toxin-sensitive and phospholipase C-dependent pathway. Int Immunol 2002; 14:421.

Niyonsaba F, Iwabuchi K, Someya A, et al. A cathelicidin family of human antibacterial peptide LL-37 induces mast cell chemotaxis. Immunology. 2002;106:20.

Salzman NH, Hung K, Haribhai D, et al. Enteric defensins are essential regulators of intestinal microbial ecology. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:76.

Epstein J, Eichbaum Q, Sheriff S, Ezekowitz RA. The collectins in innate immunity. Curr Opin Immunol. 1996;8:29.

Wright JR. Immunoregulatory functions of surfactant proteins. Nat Rev Immunol 2005; 5:58.

Wu H, Kuzmenko A, Wan S, et al. Surfactant proteins A and D inhibit the growth of Gram-negative bacteria by increasing membrane permeability. J Clin Invest. 2003;111:1589.

McCormack FX, Gibbons R, Ward SR, et al. Macrophage-independent fungicidal action of the pulmonary collectins. J Biol Chem. 2003; 278:36250.

Lee DC, Romero R, Kim CJ, et al. Surfactant protein-A as an anti-inflammatory component in the amnion: implications for human pregnancy. J Immunol. 2010;184:6479.

Fraser IP, Koziel H, Ezekowitz RA. The serum mannose-binding protein and the macrophage mannose receptor are pattern recognition molecules that link innate and adaptive immunity. Semin Immunol. 1998; 10:363.

Ricklin D, Hajishengallis G, Yang K, Lambris JD. Complement: A key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:785.

Stowell SR, Arthur CM, Dias-Baruffi M, et al. Innate immune lectins kill bacteria expressing blood group antigen. Nat Med. 2010;16:295.

Jack DL, Klein NJ, Turner MW. Mannose-binding lectin: Targeting the microbial world for complement attack and opsonophagocytosis. Immunol Rev. 2001;180: 86.

Botto M, Kirschfink M, Macor P, et al. Complement in human diseases: Lessons from complement deficiencies. Mol Immunol. 2009; 46:2774.

Liu FT, Bevins CL. A sweet target for innate immunity. Nat Med. 2010;16:263.

Garlanda C, Bottazzi B, Bastone A, Mantovani A. Pentraxins at the crossroads between innate immunity, inflammation, matrix deposition, and female fertility. Annu Rev Immunol. 2005;23: 337.

Mantovani A, Garlanda C, Doni A, Bottazzi B. Pentraxins in innate immunity: from C-reactive protein to the long pentraxin PTX3. J Clin Immunol. 2008;28:1.

Bottazzi B, Doni A, Garlanda C, Mantovani A. An integrated view of humoral innate immunity: Pentraxins as a paradigm. Annu Rev Immunol. 2010;28:157.

Deban L, Russo RC, Sironi M, et al. Regulation of leukocyte recruitment by the long pentraxin PTX3. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:328.

Medzhitov R. Recognition of microorganisms and activation of the immune response. Nature. 2007;449:819.

Rast JP, Smith LC, Loza-Coll M, et al. Genomic insights into the immune system of the sea urchin. Science. 2006;314:952.

Pabst MJ, Hedegaard HB, Johnston RB Jr. Cultured human monocytes require exposure to bacterial products to maintain an optimal oxygen radical response. J Immunol. 1982;128: 123.

Gay NJ, Keith FJ. Drosophila Toll and IL-1 receptor. Nature. 1991;351:355.

Zhang SY, Jouanguy E, Ugolini S, et al. TLR3 deficiency in patients with herpes simplex encephalitis. Science. 2007;317:1522.

Casrouge A, Zhang SY, Eidenschenk C, et al. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in human UNC-93B deficiency. Science. 2006;314:308.

Dupuis S, Jouanguy E, Al-Hajjar S, et al. Impaired response to interferon-alpha/beta and lethal viral disease in human STAT1 deficiency. Nat Genet. 2003;33:388.

Zhang SY, Jouanguy E, Sancho-Shimizu V, et al. Human Toll-like receptor-dependent induction of interferons in protective immunity to viruses. Immunol Rev. 2007;220:225.

Tulic MK, Hurrelbrink RJ, Prêle CM, et al. TLR4 polymorphisms mediate impaired responses to respiratory syncytial virus and lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol. 2007;179:132.

Pamer EG. TLR polymorphisms and the risk of invasive fungal infections. N Engl J Med. 2008; 359:1836.

Netea MG, Gow NA, Munro CA, et al. Immune sensing of Candida albicans requires cooperative recognition of mannans and glucans by lectin and Toll-like receptors. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:1642.

Thomas CA, Li Y, Kodama T, et al. Protection from lethal gram-positive infection by macrophage scavenger receptor- dependent phagocytosis. J Exp Med. 2000;191: 147.

Fabriek BO, van Bruggen R, Deng DM, et al. The macrophage scavenger receptor CD163 functions as an innate immune sensor for bacteria. Blood. 2009;113:887.

Thelen T, Hao Y, Medeiros AI, et al. The class a scavenger receptor, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure, is the major phagocytic receptor for Clostridium sordellii expressed by human decidual macrophages. J Immunol. 2010;185:4328.

Willment JA, Marshall AS, Reid DM, et al. The human beta-glucan receptor is widely expressed and functionally equivalent to murine Dectin-1 on primary cells. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35: 1539.

Levitz SM. Innate recognition of fungal cell walls. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000758.

Marakalala MJ, Kerrigan AM, Brown GD. Dectin-1: A role in antifungal defense and consequences of genetic polymorphisms in humans. Mamm Genome. 2011;22:55.

Ferwerda B, Ferwerda G, Plantinga TS, et al. Human dectin-1 deficiency and mucocutaneous fungal infections. N Engl J Med. 2009;361: 1760.

Glocker EO, Hennigs A, Nabavi M, et al. A homozygous CARD9 mutation in a family with susceptibility to fungal infections. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:1727.

Le Y, Yang Y, Cui Y, et al. Receptors for chemotactic formyl peptides as pharmacological targets. Int Immunopharmacol. 2002;2:1.

Inohara N, Nuñez G. NODs: Intracellular proteins involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Nat Rev Immunol. 2003;3:371.

Inohara N, Ogura Y, Fontalba A, et al. Host recognition of bacterial muramyl dipeptide mediated through NOD2. Implications for Crohn's disease. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:5509.

Girardin SE, Boneca IG, Viala J, et al. Nod2 is a general sensor of peptidoglycan through muramyl dipeptide (MDP) detection. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:8869.

Rosenstiel P, Fantini M, Bräutigam K, et al. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma regulate the expression of the NOD2 (CARD15) gene in human intestinal epithelial cells. Gastroenterology. 2003;124:1001.

Abraham C, Cho JH. Inflammatory bowel disease. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:2066.

Economou M, Trikalinos TA, Loizou KT, et al. Differential effects of NOD2 variants on Crohn's disease risk and phenotype in diverse populations: a metaanalysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004;99:2393.

Kato H, Takeuchi O, Sato S, et al. Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses. Nature. 2006;441: 101.

Johnston RB Jr, Babior BM. The polymorphonuclear leukocyte system. In: Immunologic disorders in infants and children, 5th ed, Stiehm ER, Ochs HD, Winkelstein JA (Eds), Saunders/Elsevier, Philadelphia. 2004; 109.

Silva MT. When two is better than one: macrophages and neutrophils work in concert in innate immunity as complementary and cooperative partners of a myeloid phagocyte system. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;87:93.

Serbina NV, Jia T, Hohl TM, Pamer EG. Monocyte-mediated defense against microbial pathogens. Annu Rev Immunol. 2008;26: 421.

Rossi M, Young JW. Human dendritic cells: Potent antigen-presenting cells at the crossroads of innate and adaptive immunity. J Immunol. 2005;175:1373.

Liu K, Nussenzweig MC. Origin and development of dendritic cells. Immunol Rev. 2010;234:45.

Rehaume LM, Hancock RE. Neutrophil-derived defensins as modulators of innate immune function. Crit Rev Immunol. 2008;28: 185.

Nauseef WM. How human neutrophils kill and degrade microbes: an integrated view. Immunol Rev 2007; 219:88.

Winkelstein JA, Marino MC, Johnston RB Jr, et al. Chronic granulomatous disease. Report on a national registry of 368 patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2000;79:155.

Reeves EP, Lu H, Jacobs HL, et al. Killing activity of neutrophils is mediated through activation of proteases by K+ flux. Nature. 2002;416:291.

Walker RI, Willemze R. Neutrophil kinetics and the regulation of granulopoiesis. Rev Infect Dis. 1980;2:282.

Stossel TP. The E. Donnall Thomas Lecture, 1993. The machinery of blood cell movements. Blood. 1994;84:367.

Vandivier RW, Henson PM, Douglas IS. Burying the dead: The impact of failed apoptotic cell removal (efferocytosis) on chronic inflammatory lung disease. Chest. 2006;129:1673.

Fox S, Leitch AE, Duffin R, et al. Neutrophil apoptosis: relevance to the innate immune response and inflammatory disease. J Innate Immun 2010; 2:216.

Tambuyzer BR, Ponsaerts P, Nouwen EJ. Microglia: Gatekeepers of central nervous system immunology. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;85: 352.

Amor S, Puentes F, Baker D, van der Valk P. Inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. Immunology. 2010;129:154.

Paust S, Senman B, von Andrian UH. Adaptive immune responses mediated by natural killer cells. Immunol Rev. 2010;235:286.

Cooper MA, Yokoyama WM. Memory-like responses of natural killer cells. Immunol Rev. 2010;235:297.

Lauzon NM, Mian F, MacKenzie R, Ashkar AA. The direct effects of Toll-like receptor ligands on human NK cell cytokine production and cytotoxicity. Cell Immunol. 2006;241: 102.

Hart OM, Athie-Morales V, O'Connor GM, Gardiner CM. TLR7/8-mediated activation of human NK cells results in accessory cell-dependent IFN-gamma production. J Immunol 2005;175:1636.

Wagtmann N, Rajagopalan S, Winter CC, et al. Killer cell inhibitory receptors specific for HLA-C and HLA-B identified by direct binding and by functional transfer. Immunity. 1995; 3:801.

Lazetic S, Chang C, Houchins JP, et al. Human natural killer cell receptors involved in MHC class I recognition are disulfide-linked heterodimers of CD94 and NKG2 subunits. J Immunol. 1996;157:4741.

Cerwenka A, Lanier LL. Natural killer cells, viruses and cancer. Nat Rev Immunol. 2001;1: 41.

Gasser S, Raulet DH. Activation and self-tolerance of natural killer cells. Immunol Rev. 2006;214:130.

Trapani JA, Smyth MJ. Functional significance of the perforin/granzyme cell death pathway. Nat Rev Immunol. 2002;2:735.

Andoniou CE, Andrews DM, Degli-Esposti MA. Natural killer cells in viral infection: more than just killers. Immunol Rev. 2006;214:239.

Moretta L, Ferlazzo G, Bottino C, et al. Effector and regulatory events during natural killer-dendritic cell interactions. Immunol Rev. 2006;214:219.

Rouse BT, Sehrawat S. Immunity and immunopathology to viruses: What decides the outcome? Nat Rev Immunol. 2010;10: 514.

Biron CA, Byron KS, Sullivan JL. Severe herpesvirus infections in an adolescent without natural killer cells. N Engl J Med. 1989;320: 1731.

Nakanaga T, Nadel JA, Ueki IF, et al. Regulation of interleukin-8 via an airway epithelial signaling cascade. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007;292:L1289.

Szolnoky G, Bata-Csörgö Z, Kenderessy AS, et al. A mannose-binding receptor is expressed on human keratinocytes and mediates killing of Candida albicans. J Invest Dermatol. 2001;117: 205.

Rakoff-Nahoum S, Paglino J, Eslami-Varzaneh F, et al. Recognition of commensal microflora by toll-like receptors is required for intestinal homeostasis. Cell. 2004;118:229.

Varadaradjalou S, Féger F, Thieblemont N, et al. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 differentially activate human mast cells. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:899.

McCurdy JD, Olynych TJ, Maher LH, Marshall JS. Cutting edge: Distinct Toll-like receptor 2 activators selectively induce different classes of mediator production from human mast cells. J Immunol. 2003;170:1625.

Schulman ES, Post TJ, Henson PM, Giclas PC. Differential effects of the complement peptides, C5a and C5a des Arg on human basophil and lung mast cell histamine release. J Clin Invest. 1988;81:918.

Malaviya R, Ikeda T, Ross E, Abraham SN. Mast cell modulation of neutrophil influx and bacterial clearance at sites of infection through TNF-alpha. Nature. 1996;381:77.

Abraham SN, St John AL. Mast cell-orchestrated immunity to pathogens. Nat Rev Immunol. 2010;10:440.

Semple JW, Freedman J. Platelets and innate immunity. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:499.

Leslie M. Cell biology. Beyond clotting: The powers of platelets. Science. 2010;328:562.

Holt PG, Oliver J, Bilyk N, et al. Downregulation of the antigen presenting cell function(s) of pulmonary dendritic cells in vivo by resident alveolar macrophages. J Exp Med. 1993;177:397.

Lambrecht BN. Alveolar macrophage in the driver's seat. Immunity. 2006;24:366.

Takabayshi K, Corr M, Hayashi T, et al. Induction of a homeostatic circuit in lung tissue by microbial compounds. Immunity. 2006;24: 475.

Silva MT. Bacteria-induced phagocyte secondary necrosis as a pathogenicity mechanism. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;88:885.

Banerjee S, Friggeri A, Liu G, Abraham E. The C-terminal acidic tail is responsible for the inhibitory effects of HMGB1 on efferocytosis. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;88:973.

Fadok VA, Voelker DR, Campbell PA, et al. Exposure of phosphatidylserine on the surface of apoptotic lymphocytes triggers specific recognition and removal by macrophages. J Immunol. 1992;148:2207.

Fadok VA, Bratton DL, Rose DM, et al. A receptor for phosphatidylserine-specific clearance of apoptotic cells. Nature. 2000;405: 85.

Fadeel B, Xue D, Kagan V. Programmed cell clearance: Molecular regulation of the elimination of apoptotic cell corpses and its role in the resolution of inflammation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;396:7.

Parihar A, Eubank TD, Doseff AI. Monocytes and macrophages regulate immunity through dynamic networks of survival and cell death. J Innate Immun. 2010;2:204.

Johnston RB Jr. Clinical aspects of chronic granulomatous disease. Curr Opin Hematol. 2001;8:17.

Segal BH, Han W, Bushey JJ, et al. NADPH oxidase limits innate immune responses in the lungs in mice. PLoS One. 2010;5:e9631.

Fernandez-Boyanapalli RF, Frasch SC, McPhillips K, et al. Impaired apoptotic cell clearance in CGD due to altered macrophage programming is reversed by phosphatidylserine -dependent production of IL-4. Blood. 2009; 113:2047.

Fernandez-Boyanapalli R, McPhillips KA, Frasch SC, et al. Impaired phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages in chronic granulomatous disease is reversed by IFN-γ in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. J Immunol. 2010;185:4030.

Vandivier RW, Ogden CA, Fadok VA, et al. Role of surfactant proteins A, D and C1q in the clearance of apoptotic cells in vivo and in vitro: calreticulin and CD91 as a common collectin receptor complex. J Immunol. 2002;169: 3978.